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Symbol HAS1 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 28-04-2015
HGNC name hyaluronan synthase 1
HGNC id 4818
Location 19q13.41      Physical location : 52.216.364 - 52.227.221
Synonym name
  • HA synthase 1
  • human fetal brain mRNA for hyaluronan synthase
  • Synonym symbol(s) HAS
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 10.88 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor
    text structure
  • TGFB1 up-regulation of HAS1 transcription was mediated via SMAD3, while HAS1 induction by IL1&
  • 61472;B was Sp3- dependent
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map cen - KLK1 - SIGLEC6 - ETFB ETFB - HAS1 - FPR1 - qter
    Authors Spicer (97)
    Physical map
    FLJ40235 19q13.41 hypothetical protein FLJ40235 LOC339351 19q13.41 similar to hypothetical protein LOC162952 19q13.41 similar to Opioid binding protein/cell adhesion molecule precursor (OBCAM) (Opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule) (OPCML) LOC147645 19q13.41 hypothetical protein LOC147645 ETFB 19q13.4 electron-transfer-flavoprotein, beta polypeptide MGC33839 19q13.41 hypothetical protein MGC33839 NKG7 19q13.4 natural killer cell group 7 sequence LIM2 19q13.4 lens intrinsic membrane protein 2, 19kDa LOC147646 19q13.41 hypothetical protein LOC147646 LOC388557 19 similar to nucleolar phosphoprotein Nopp34 SIGLEC10 19q13.3 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 10 SIGLEC8 19q13.33-q13.41 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 8 SIGLECL1 19q13.4 SIGLEC-like 1 SIGLEC6 19q13.3 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6 ZNF175 19q13.4 zinc finger protein 175 LOC147649 19q13.41 hypothetical LOC147649 LOC339352 19q13.41 hypothetical LOC339352 SIGLEC5 19q13.4 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 LOC147650 19q13.41 hypothetical protein LOC147650 HAS1 19q13.3-q13.4 hyaluronan synthase 1 FPR1 19q13.4 formyl peptide receptor 1 FPRL1 19q13.4 formyl peptide receptor-like 1 FPRL2 19q13.3-q13.4 formyl peptide receptor-like 2 LOC390957 19 similar to Zinc finger protein 84 (Zinc finger protein HPF2) MGC4400 19q13.41 hypothetical protein MGC4400 FLJ12644 19q13.41 hypothetical protein FLJ12644 LOC390958 19 similar to ZNF84 protein FLJ13590 19q13.41 hypothetical protein FLJ13590 ZNF350 19q13.4 zinc finger protein 350 FLJ33710 19q13.41 FLJ33710 protein FLJ21941 19q13.41 FLJ21941 protein ZNF432 19q13.41 zinc finger protein 432 LOC284371 19q13.41 hypothetical protein LOC284371 MGC45556 19q13.41 hypothetical protein MGC45556 LOC90317 19q13.41 hypothetical protein LOC90317 LOC147655 19q13.41 similar to ribosomal protein L37 LOC162962 19q13.41 similar to Zinc finger protein Kr18 (HKr18)
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 2116 64.9 578 diffusely expressed in the cell 2009 19451652
  • HAS1-FL
  • interacting with HAS1-Vs (altered distribution and half-life of HAS1-FL, coupled with the characteristics of the HAS1-Vs suggest possible mechanisms whereby the aberrant splicing observed in human cancer may contribute to oncogenesis and disease progression)
  • - splicing - - - concentrated in the cytoplasm and/or Golgi apparatus 2009 19451652
  • comprising HAS1-Va, HAS1-Vb, HAS1-Vc
  • able to relocalize HAS1-FL protein from diffuse cytoskeleton-anchored locations to deeper cytoplasmic space
  • 4 - - - - - 2009 19451652
    4 - - 38 - - 2009 19451652
    59-base intronic sequence
    4 - - - - - 2009 19451652
  • having oncogenic properties
  • 5 - 2137 - 577 - 2009 19451652
    Type restricted
    constitutive of
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    blood / hematopoieticspleen    
    Digestiveintestinelarge intestine   
    Reproductivefemale systemplacenta   
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • multiple transmembrane domains
  • several consensus HA (hyaluronan) binding motifs
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    interspecies ortholog to murine Has1
    homolog to C.elegans t27e9.5
    intraspecies paralog to HAS2,HAS3
  • hyaluronan synthase family
  • modc/has family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in hyaluroman, hyaluronic acid synthesis
  • involved in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis
  • regulates bladder cancer growth and progression by modulating HA synthesis and HA receptor levels
  • HAS1, HAS2, HAS3 act on the inner face of plasma membrane and simultaneously translocate the growing polysaccharide through plasma membrane into extracellular space
  • may mediate cellular invasion via changes in MMP7 expression (Dunn 2009)
  • almost unable to secrete hyaluronan or form a hyaluronan coat, in contrast to HAS2 and HAS3
  • HAS1 activity requires a relatively high concentration for UDP-GlcNAc
  • is capable of creating a hyaluronan coat but only in the presence of generous amounts of the UDP-sugars
  • important role for HAS1 in conditions associated with abnormal glucose metabolism
  • HAS1-dependent coat is potentially induced by inflammatory agents and glycemic stress, mediated by altered presentation of either CD44 or hyaluronan, and can offer a rapid cellular response to injury and inflammation
  • HAS1 is the main enzyme responsible for Hyaluronan (HA) production by normal keratinocytes and thus, must be considered as an actor of normal keratinocyte differentiation
  • despite the apparently minor enzymatic activity of HAS1 under normal conditions, it may be an important factor under conditions associated with glycemic stress like metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and cancer
  • general tendency of HAS1, HAS2, HAS3 to form both homomeric and heteromeric complexes with potentially important functional consequences on hyaluronan synthesis
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell communication
    metabolism carbohydrate
    a component
    small molecule
    cell & other
    induced by pro-inflammatory factors, and expression and activity of HAS1 are induced by pro-inflammatory factors like interleukins and cytokines, suggesting its involvement in inflammatory conditions
    repressed by estradiol that inhibits HAS1 expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    increase in serum hyaluronan in endometrial cancer may be associated with disease progression through myometrial invasion and lymph-vascular space involvement
    tumoral     --other  
    aberrant HAS1 splicing in multiple myeloma, bladder cancer and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (Ghosh (2009)
    tumoral     --over  
    in colon, ovarian, endometrial, mesothelioma and bladder cancers (Ghosh 2009)
    constitutional       gain of function
    during muscle hypertrophy
    constitutional       gain of function
    in states associated with inflammation, like atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, and infectious lung disease
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target