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Symbol TFF1 contributors: mct - updated : 09-11-2011
HGNC name trefoil factor 1
HGNC id 11755
Location 21q22.3      Physical location : 43.782.390 - 43.786.644
Synonym name
  • breast cancer, estrogen-inducible sequence expressed in
  • protein pS2
  • gastrointestinal trefoil protein pS2
  • Synonym symbol(s) BCEI, HPS2, PNR2, pS2, HP1.A, pNR-2, D21S21
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 4.25 kb     3 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Map cen - D21S15 ,D21S101 - D21S231 - D21S53 ,D21S39 ,D21S51 - [D21S64 - MX1 - MX2 - D21S212 ],D21S40 - TFF3 - TFF2 - TFF1 ,D21S56 - [D21S19 ,D21S42 ,D21S113 ], (D21S41 ,D21S43 ) - CBS - CRYAA - qter
    Physical map
    BACE2 21q22.3 beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2 PLAC4 21 placenta-specific 4 FAM3B 21q22.3 family with sequence similarity 3, member B MX2 21q22.3 myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2 (mouse) MX1 21q22.3 myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1, interferon-inducible protein p78 (mouse) TMPRSS2 21q22.3 transmembrane protease, serine 2 C21orf129 21q22.3 chromosome 21 open reading frame 129 ANKRD3 21q22.3 ankyrin repeat domain 3 PRDM15 21q22.3 PR domain containing 15 LOC388827 21 similar to ZNF298 C21orf25 21q22.3 chromosome 21 open reading frame 25 LOC388828 21 similar to C21orf258 ZNF295 21q22.3 zinc finger protein 295 C21orf121 21 chromosome 21 open reading frame 121 C21orf128 21q22.3 chromosome 21 open reading frame 128 FLJ36335 21q22.3 hypothetical protein FLJ36335 ABCG1 21q22.3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 1 TFF3 21q22.3 trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) TFF2 21q22.3 trefoil factor 2 (spasmolytic protein 1) TFF1 21q22.3 trefoil factor 1 (breast cancer, estrogen-inducible sequence expressed in) TMPRSS3 21q22.3 transmembrane protease, serine 3 UBASH3A 21q22.3 ubiquitin associated and SH3 domain containing, A TSGA2 21q22.3 testes specific A2 homolog (mouse) SLC37A1 21q22.3 solute carrier family 37 (glycerol-3-phosphate transporter), member 1 PDE9A 21q22.3 phosphodiesterase 9A WDR4 21q22.3 WD repeat domain 4 NDUFV3 21q22.3 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 3, 10kDa PKNOX1 21q22.3 PBX/knotted 1 homeobox 1 CBS 21q22.3 cystathionine-beta-synthase U2AF1 21q22.3 U2(RNU2) small nuclear RNA auxillary factor 1 MRPL51P2 21q22.3 U2(RNU2) small nuclear RNA auxillary factor 1 LOC388829 21 LOC388829 CRYAA 21q22.3 crystallin, alpha A SNF1LK 21q22.3 SNF1-like kinase C21orf125 21 chromosome 21 open reading frame 125 C21orf84 21q22.1 chromosome 21 open reading frame 84
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 508 - 84 - 2003 12891554
    constitutive of
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon moderately
     stomach   predominantly
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Epithelialabsorptive excretorydigestive epithelium  
    cell lineage
    cell lines breast cancer cell lines
    at STAGE
  • a P-type trefoil domain
  • three intrachain disulfide bonds, forming the three leaf structure
  • isoforms Precursor a 24 aa signal peptide (2.5 kda), a 59 aa mature peptide (6.7 kda)
    interspecies homolog to rattus Tff1 (65.4pc)
    homolog to murine Tff1 (66.7pc)
  • trefoil family
  • CATEGORY immunity/defense , signaling growth factor
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the mucosal integrity
  • potential candidate to counterbalance the proliferative effects of gastrin
  • potential interest of TFF1 or related peptides to prevent cell death in ocular surface disorders
  • may enhance mucosal healing by modulating motogenic activity, inhibiting apoptosis, and promoting angiogenesis
  • possesses oncogenic functions in mammary carcinoma cells
  • does not exhibit oncogenic properties, but rather reduces tumor development
  • involved in maintaining the gastrointestinal epithelium by serving a tumor-suppressive role
  • acts as a promoter of tumorigenesis in the context of prostate and pancreatic cancers by suppressing oncogene-induced senescence (OIS)
  • soluble factor designed to act mainly to antagonize the OIS process to accelerate tumorigenesis
  • may be considered to be an example of an antisenescence factor that could play a critical role in overcoming the OIS barrier
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS digestion , immunity/defense
    text cell growth and maintenance
    metabolism carbohydrate
    a component
  • heterodimer comprises one molecule each of TFF1 and GKN2, and the disulfide bond between TFF1 and GKN2 is the most important factor stabilizing the heterodimer
    small molecule
  • interacting with GKN2
  • cell & other
    induced by by gastrin in a gastric cancer cell line
    Other regulated by the gastrin
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   LOH    
    in primary gastric cancer
    tumoral       loss of function
    in breast (tract, digestive) cancer, and some digestive tumors (stomach, pancreas, biliary tract)
    tumoral     --low  
    in gastric tumors in which tumors exhibited overexpression of CEBPB
    tumoral     --over  
    by hypomethylation of the promoter/enhancer region, significantly lower in prostate carcinoma compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker overexpression and promoter hypomethylation of trefoil factors may serve as biomarkers in prostate carcinoma
    Therapy target
    Functional antagonism of TFF1 can therefore be considered as a novel therapeutic strategy for mammary carcinoma