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FLASH GENE
Symbol CALR contributors: mct/shn - updated : 02-05-2015
HGNC name calreticulin
HGNC id 1455
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 5.89 kb     9 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Binding site
text structure an ER stress response element (ERSE)
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Map pter - D19S221 - D19S914 - CALR - D19S840 - D19S892 - cen
Physical map
MGC26914 19p13.2 hypothetical protein MGC26914 PGK1P2 6p21-p12 phosphoglycerate kinase 1, pseudogene 2 ZNF490 19p13.2 zinc finger protein 490 FLJ90396 19p13.2 hypothetical protein FLJ90396 MGC4238 19p13.2 hypothetical protein MGC4238 LOC284393 19p13.2 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L10 (QM protein homolog) MAN2B1 19p13.2-p13.1 mannosidase, alpha, class 2B, member 1 PTD008 19p13.2 PTD008 protein DHPS 19p13.12-p13.11 deoxyhypusine synthase MGC10870 19p13.2 hypothetical protein MGC10870 TNPO2 19p13.2 transportin 2 (importin 3, karyopherin beta 2b) MGC2803 19p13.2 hypothetical protein MGC2803 ASNA1 19q13.3 arsA arsenite transporter, ATP-binding, homolog 1 (bacterial) VMD2L1 19p13.2-p13.12 arsA arsenite transporter, ATP-binding, homolog 1 (bacterial) HOOK2 19p13.2 arsA arsenite transporter, ATP-binding, homolog 1 (bacterial) RNASEH2A 19p13.2 ribonuclease H2, large subunit JUNB 19p13.2 jun B proto-oncogene PRDX2 13q12 peroxiredoxin 2 RTBDN 19p12 retbindin DNASE2 19p13.2 deoxyribonuclease II, lysosomal KLF1 19p13.13-p13.12 Kruppel-like factor 1 (erythroid) GCDH 19p13.2 glutaryl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase FARSLA 19p13.2 phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase-like, alpha subunit CALR 19p13.3-p13.2 calreticulin RAD23A 19p13.2 RAD23 homolog A (S. cerevisiae) PLINP-1 19p13.2 papillomavirus L2 interacting nuclear protein 1 FLJ38607 19p13.2 hypothetical protein FLJ38607 LOC339375 19p13.13 hypothetical LOC339375 NFIX 19p13.2 nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor) LYL1 19p13.2-p13.1 lymphoblastic leukemia derived sequence 1 FLJ20244 19p13.13 hypothetical protein FLJ20244 BTBD14B 19p13.13 BTB (POZ) domain containing 14B STX10 19p13.2 syntaxin 10 ETR101 LOC390891 19 similar to 60S RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L12 CACNA1A 19p13.2-13.1 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
9 - 1929 46 417 - 1990 2332496
EXPRESSION
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheart   highly
Digestiveintestinesmall intestine  highly
Endocrinethyroid   highly
Reproductivefemale systemovary  highly
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Muscularstriatumcardiac  
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion increased in peripheral maternal blood early in pregnancy and remaining elevated throughout normal gestation
at STAGE
physiological period embryo
Text highly at early stages of cardiac development
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES acid ,globular
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • a globular zinc binding sites at the N terminus
  • a central proline-rich P domain forming an elongated arm-like structure, binding one molecule of calcium with high affinity
  • a C-terminal acidic binding multiple calcium ions with low affinity, partly responsible for the ER retention of calreticulin, and thus, disruption of the conformation of this domain could reduce the effectiveness of the retention mechanism
  • conjugated GlycoP
    mono polymer monomer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to Calr, Mus musculus
    ortholog to Calr, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to calr, Danio rerio
    ortholog to CALR, Pan troglodytes
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • calreticulin family
  • CATEGORY chaperone/stress , antigen
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,lumen
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,granule
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • calcium binding protein of endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • also found in cell surface (T cells), cytosol and in the exracellular matrix
  • associated with the lytic granules in the cytolytic T-lymphocytes
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ storage capacity (
  • involved in the synthesis (folding) of many proteins (lectin-like chaperone)
  • key upstream regulator of calcineurin-dependent pathways during cardiac development
  • inhibiting activity of glucocorticoid and other nuclear hormone receptors
  • playing a role which involves chromatin dynamics on the surface of mitotic chromosomes and posible role as histone chaperone
  • negatively regulating the cell surface expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
  • having functions in Ca(2+) homeostasis of myocardiac disease
  • can act as an important modulator of the regulation of gene transcription by nuclear hormone receptors (
  • can inhibit AR and RAR transcriptional activities as well as RA-induced neuronal differentiation
  • important modulator of the regulation of gene transcription by nuclear hormone receptors
  • playing a key role in determining anticancer immune responses
  • a receptor for nuclear export and may regulate the transcriptional activity of steroid hormone receptors (
  • role in thrombospondin signaling (
  • deglycosylated major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chains (
  • essential in early cardiac development and plays an important role in autoimmunity and cancer (
  • promotes cell motility and enhances resistance to anoikis through STAT3-CTTN-Akt pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
  • enhancing B2 bradykinin receptor maturation and homodimerization
  • may inhibit growth and/or metastasis of prostate cancer cells
  • enhancing gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration
  • enhancing BDKRB2 maturation and heterodimerization with AGT
  • plays an important role in the MHC class I assembly pathway
  • can regulate CD1D expression
  • CALR levels could potentially regulate CD1D-mediated stimulation of NKT cells
  • key role in the quality control of class I-peptide complexes
  • functions as a calcium buffer in the ER
  • calcium-binding role in thick ascending limb of Henle's loop adaptation and survival under osmotic stress
  • soluble placental CNX may have a physiological chaperone function similar to that of CALR
  • CELLULAR PROCESS protein, post translation, folding
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • component of an EIF2 complex
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
  • hYRNA, the RNA backbone of the Ro/SS-A RNP particle (
  • C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta mRNAs (
  • 5' region of p21 mRNA (
  • small molecule metal binding, other,
  • Ca2+ binding
  • lectin binding
  • Zn2+ binding
  • protein
  • integrin alpha 3 and alpha 5 subunits (
  • fibrinogen B beta chain, FGB (
  • C1q-R, C1q, and mannan-binding protein (
  • glucocorticoid receptor (
  • protein disulfide isomerase, PDI (
  • newly synthesized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein and gp160 (
  • glucose transporter type 1, Glut1 (
  • MHC class I-beta 2 microglobulin, beta 2m (
  • tissue-type plasminogen activator, tPA (
  • coagulation factor VIII and factor V (
  • Perforin (
  • thyroid transcription factor-1, TTF-1 (
  • apolipoprotein B, ApoB (
  • carboxy-terminal fibrillin-1, FBN1 (
  • von Willebrand factor, VWF (
  • beta-amyloid precursor protein, APP (
  • H glycoprotein (
  • monoglucosylated oligosaccharides of the form Glc(1)Man(5-9)GlcNAc(2), thiol oxidoreductase and ERp57 (
  • thrombospondin (
  • CD1d (
  • thyrotropin receptor, TSHR (
  • Lipoprotein lipase, LPL (
  • low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, LRP (
  • GABARAP
  • MPO is chaperoned by calreticulin (CALR) in the endoplasmic reticulum
  • cell & other
  • synthetic peptide KLGFFKR (
  • REGULATION
    activated by the transcription factor CSX
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in Sjögren syndrome
    tumoral germinal mutation      
    are frequently found in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) and essential thrombocythemia and patients with homozygous CALR mutations had reduced MPO protein, but normal MPO messenger RNA (mRNA) levels(ET)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • angiogenic regulator in gastric cancer, can serve as a prognosis marker
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS