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FLASH GENE
Symbol PON2 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 26-03-2010
HGNC name paraoxonase 2
HGNC id 9205
Location 7q21.3      Physical location : 95.034.174 - 95.064.384
Synonym name
  • arylesterase 2
  • paraoxonase-like sequence 1 (PON2)
  • paraoxonase nirs
  • aromatic esterase 2
  • serum aryldialkylphosphatase 2
  • EC.number 3.1.1.2, 3.1.8.1
    DNA
    TYPE like-sequence
    SPECIAL FEATURE component of a cluster
    STRUCTURE 30.21 kb     9 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    FLJ20073 7q21.3 FLJ20073 protein FLJ39885 7q21.3 hypothetical protein FLJ39885 LOC253012 7q21.3 hypothetical protein LOC253012 FLJ20097 7q21.3 hypothetical protein FLJ20097 CALCR 7q21.3 calcitonin receptor LOC346588 7q21.3 similar to Protein C6orf66 (HSPC125) (My013 protein) TFPI2 7q22 tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 GNGT1 7q21.3 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1 GNG11 7q21.3 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 11 BET1 7q21.1-q22 BET1 homolog (S. cerevisiae) COL1A2 7q21.3 collagen, type I, alpha 2 CAS1 7q21.3 O-acetyltransferase SGCE 7q21.3 sarcoglycan, epsilon PEG10 7q21 paternally expressed 10 LOC392073 7 similar to ribosomal protein S3a; 40S ribosomal protein S3a; v-fos transformation effector protein 1 LOC392074 7 similar to dJ133P16.1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1) PPP1R9A 7q21 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 9A PON1 7q21.3 paraoxonase 1 PON3 7q21.3 paraoxonase 3 PON2 7q21.3 paraoxonase 2 ASB4 7q21-q22 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 4 PDK4 7q21.3 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 4 LOC389533 7 LOC389533 DNCI1 7q21.3 dynein, cytoplasmic, intermediate polypeptide 1 SLC25A13 7q21.3 solute carrier family 25, member 13 (citrin) HCP18 7q21.3 cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene SHFM1 LOC392075 7 similar to Ser/Thr protein kinase PAR-1Balpha DLX6 7q21.3 distal-less homeo box 6 DLX5 7q21.3 distal-less homeo box 5 ACN9 7q22.1 ACN9 homolog (S. cerevisiae) LOC392076 7 similar to Rpl7a protein TAC1 7q21.3-q22.1 tachykinin, precursor 1 (substance K, substance P, neurokinin 1, neurokinin 2, neuromedin L, neurokinin alpha, neuropeptide K, neuropeptide gamma) ASNS 7q21.3 asparagine synthetase LOC389534 7 LOC389534 LOC389535 7 similar to hypothetical protein LOC286031 LOC389536 7 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    9 - 1669 - 354 - Mochizuki (1998)
    9 - 1633 - 342 - Mochizuki (1998)
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestinesmall intestinejejunum highly
     liver   highly
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Pou2
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • paraoxonase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,lysosome
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,microsome
    text
  • predominant PON2 association with microsomes and lysosomes in the human jejunum (Levy 2007)
  • localization to the ER in endothelial cells (Stoltzl 2009)
  • basic FUNCTION
  • acting as a cellular antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative stress
  • attenuates macrophage triglyceride accumulation and foam cell formation via inhibition of microsomal DGAT1 activity, which appears to be sensitive to oxidative state (Rosenblat 2009)
  • macrophage PON2 expression is upregulated in unesterified cholesterol-enriched macrophages through activation of the PI(3)K signal pathway (Shiner 2007)
  • having protective effects against prooxidant stimuli in the small intestine (Levy 2007)
  • attenuated macrophage triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase
  • having a lactonase activity that may play a role in innate immunity, atherosclerosis (Stoltz 2009)
  • effectively rescues PARK7 deficiency-mediated hypersensitivity to oxidative stress
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • is an interacting target of PARK7 (PON2 activity is elevated in response to oxidative stress and PARK7 is crucial for this response)
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
  • to coronary heart disease
  • to nephropathy in diabetes type 2
  • to Alzheimer disease (AD)
  • to severe cases of ischemic stroke
  • Variant & Polymorphism other
  • PON2 311C allele alters PON2 lactonase activity and is a possible predisposing factor for severe cases of ischemic stroke (Lazaros 2009)
  • multiple variants in PON influence serum paraoxonase activity, and low serum paraoxonase activity is a risk factor for AD
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS