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FLASH GENE
Symbol PODXL contributors: mct/shn - updated : 30-03-2020
HGNC name podocalyxin-like
HGNC id 9171
Corresponding disease
ARJPK1 autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinsonism 1
Location 7q32.3      Physical location : 131.185.022 - 131.241.376
Synonym name
  • keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan
  • GCTM-2 antigen
  • podocalyxin
  • podocalyxin-like protein 1
  • Synonym symbol(s) PCLP, Gp200, GCTM-2, PC, MGC138240, PCLP-1
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 56.36 kb     9 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map cen - D7S3054 - D7S2531- PODXL - D7S512 - D7S1804 - qter
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    8 - 5911 55.4 526 high endothelial venules (PMID: 9625756) expressed abundantly in the epithelial cells of kidney glomeruli (PMID: 18456258) 2019 30975647
    9 - 6007 - 558 high endothelial venules (PMID: 9625756) expressed abundantly in the epithelial cells of kidney glomeruli (PMID: 18456258) 2019 30975647
    - - - 230 - - 2018 30277651
  • LEA possessed the same terminal sugar residue as PODXL
  • detected in ColoRectal cancer (CRC) patient serum and ascites
  • functions as an independent predictor for the progression of CRC
  • is a new potential biomarker, which might be used in noninvasive detection via exosome&
  • 8208;based bodily fluids of CRC patients
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly Homo sapiens
     vessel     Homo sapiens
    Endocrinepancreas   highly Homo sapiens
    Nervousbrain   lowly Homo sapiens
    Reproductivefemale systemplacenta  moderately Homo sapiens
    Respiratorylung   moderately Homo sapiens
    Urinarykidneynephronrenal capsuleglomerulus  Homo sapiens
     kidney   highly Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularstriatumskeletal   Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticmegakaryocyte Homo sapiens
    Blood/Hematopoieticplatelet Homo sapiens
    Cardiovascularendothelial cell Homo sapiens
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
    Urinaryepithelial cell Homo sapiens
    Urinarypodocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines testicular tumor cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    Text widely expressed in neurons during neural development
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • single membrane-spanning region
  • extracellular multiple potential sites for N and O-linked glycosylation and four cysteines
  • share an identical C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (DTHL) with PODXL2 (
  • conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to Podxl, Mus musculus
    ortholog to PODXL, Pan troglodytes
    ortholog to podxl, Danio rerio
    ortholog to Podxl, Rattus norvegicus
    intraspecies paralog to CD34
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • sialomucin protein family
  • CD 34 family
  • CATEGORY adhesion , structural protein
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleolus
    text
  • intact PODXL is released to the extracellular space as a cargo of microvesicles and also as a soluble cleaved fragment of ectodomain
  • basic FUNCTION
  • functioning as an antiadhesin that maintains an open filtration pathway between neighboring foot processes in the podocyte by charge repulsion
  • extensively O&
  • 8208;linked glycosylated glycoprotein
  • enhances the adherence of cells to immobilized ligands and to vascular endothelial cells through a mechanism dependent on the activity of integrins
  • is essential for maintaining the elaborate structure of kidney podocytes (
  • potentially playing a role in cell migration and cell-cell recognition during brain development
  • in pluripotent stem cells and in cancer disease, may function in part to regulate and maintain the cell surface expression of SLC2A3
  • may function in part to regulate and maintain the cell surface expression of the glucose-3-transporter
  • renal polysialylated-containing protein that has been reported to function as an anti-adhesin in kidney podocytes
  • second highly sialylated neural adhesion protein, playing multiple roles in neural development
  • integrity of the PODXL ectodomain is essential for enhancing cell adhesion but not migration, while the integrity of the cytoplasmic domain is required for both adhesion and migration
  • in endothelial cells, podocalyxin plays a previously unrecognized role in maintaining vascular integrity, likely through orchestrating interactions with extracellular matrix components and basement membrane
  • new function of PODXL expressed on tumor cells as an immunomodulatory molecule, which may represent a mechanism to evade the immune response
  • potential role of PODXL in neural development
  • having roles in renal podocyte diaphragm slit development
  • is a novel keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)
  • specific functions for PODXL in maintaining endothelial barrier function
  • has a key role in promoting the appropriate endothelial morphogenesis required to form functional barriers
  • PODXL expression by CNS tissue vascular endothelial cells (vECs) is essential for blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance under inflammatory conditions
  • role for PODXL in mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) cell proliferation, survival, migration, drug resistance, and metabolic reprogramming
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • integral constituent of the glomerular epithelial cell glycocalyx
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • recombinant L-selectin and the HEV-specific monoclonal antibody MECA-79
  • linked to ezrin and the actin cytoskeleton via Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger regulatory factor, 2 NHERF2
  • actin filaments in podocytes mediated by CTTN and alteration of this interaction may play a role in the process of morphological change of podocytes
  • glucose-3-transporter (SLC2A3) and the cell-adhesion protein PODXL
  • novel molecular connection between PODXL and ANXA2: both exert pro-survival effects in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs), and PODXL positively regulates ANXA2 expression through the MAPK pathway
  • novel roles for PODXL as an important modulator of neutrophil and monocyte formation and of RAP1A activation during stress hematopoiesis
  • PODXL promotes extravasation through direct interaction of its intracellular domain with the cytoskeletal linker protein EZR
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) ARJPK1
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in breast cancer cells might promote metastasis by disrupting cell adhesion, particularly during apical membrane expansion
    constitutional germinal mutation     loss of function
    lead to adult-onset focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)
    constitutional     --over  
    significantly increased in preeclampsia at disease presentation
    tumoral     --over  
    in prostate cancer
    constitutional germinal mutation     loss of function
    patient presenting with congenital nephrotic syndrome, omphalocele and microcoria
    Susceptibility to prostate cancer with tumor aggressiveness
    Variant & Polymorphism other variant 340A increasing the risk of prostate cancer with tumor aggressiveness
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors
  • putative immunohistochemical marker of prostate cancer that may contribute to stratification of patients for optimal treatment
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • transient knockdown of PODXL or the expression of PODXL lacking the cytosolic carboxyterminal domain (PODXL-Delta(451)) inhibited cell adherence
  • siRNA podocalyxin-knockdown experiments show decreased expression levels of the glucose-3-transporter