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FLASH GENE
Symbol CCL4 contributors: mct - updated : 03-02-2010
HGNC name chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4
HGNC id 10630
Location 17q12      Physical location : 34.431.219 - 34.433.014
Synonym name
  • macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta
  • small inducible cytokine A4 (homologous to mouse Mip-1b)
  • lymphocyte activation gene 1
  • secreted protein G-26
  • protein H400
  • G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein
  • Synonym symbol(s) ACT2, Act-2, MIP1B, SCYA4, AT744.1, MIP-1-BETA, MIP-1-beta, LAG1, G-26, MGC104418, MGC126025, MGC126026, SCYA2, SIS-gamma, HC21
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE component of a cluster, head to head, opposite orientation
    text
  • separated by 14kb in head to head orientation from CCL3
  • clustered in IMC1@
  • STRUCTURE 1.80 kb     3 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter (TATA box)
    text structure promoter region include a GM-CSF-like decanucleotide sequence (Baixeras 1990)
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map see CCL3L1
    Physical map
    FLJ31952 17q21.1 hypothetical protein FLJ31952 LOC342615 17q21.1 similar to Adenylosuccinate synthetase 2 (IMP--aspartate ligase 2) (AdSS 2) (AMPSase 2) LOC342616 17q21.1 similar to TAF5L protein LOC342618 17q21.1 similar to FLJ34922 protein PEX12 17q21.1 peroxisomal biogenesis factor 12 AP2B1 17q11.2-q12 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit VTS58635 GAR17 17q21.1 GAS2-related protein LOC146853 17q21.1 LOC146853 MMP28 17q11-q21.1 matrix metalloproteinase 28 TAF15 17q11.1-q11.2 TAF15 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 68kDa FLJ32830 17q21.1 hypothetical protein FLJ32830 CCL5 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 LOC390786 17 hypothetical gene supported by AL833376 LOC390787 17 similar to KIAA0563 protein RAD52B 17q11.2 RAD52B LOC57151 17q11.2 lysozyme homolog CCL16 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 16 CCL14 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 CCL14-CCL15 17q21.1 chemokine ligand 14, chemokine ligand 15 transcription unit CCL15 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 15 CCL23 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 23 CCL18 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (pulmonary and activation-regulated) CCL3 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 CCL4 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 LOC388368 17 similar to TBC1 domain family member 3 (Rab GTPase-activating protein PRC17) (Prostate cancer gene 17 protein) (TRE17 alpha protein) LOC388369 17 LOC388369 LOC388370 17 similar to cytokine LOC388371 17 similar to TBC1 domain family member 3 (Rab GTPase-activating protein PRC17) (Prostate cancer gene 17 protein) (TRE17 alpha protein) LOC390788 17 similar to CCL3L1 protein CCL3L1 17q11.2 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1 LOC388372 17 similar to cytokine LOC388373 17 similar to TBC1 domain family member 3 (Rab GTPase-activating protein PRC17) (Prostate cancer gene 17 protein) (TRE17 alpha protein) LOC388374 17 similar to TBC1 domain family member 3 (Rab GTPase-activating protein PRC17) (Prostate cancer gene 17 protein) (TRE17 alpha protein) TRIP3 17q21.1 thyroid hormone receptor interactor 3 FLJ22865 17q21.1 hypothetical protein FLJ22865 PIGW 17q21.1 phosphatidylinositol glycan, class W LZK1 17q21.1 C3HC4-type zinc finger protein
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 667 - 92 - 1990 2247088
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
    constitutive of
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineadrenal gland   highly
    Nervousbrain   moderately
    Reproductivefemale systemplacenta  highly
     male systemprostate  highly
    Respiratorylung   highly
    Urinarykidney   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow  highly
    Connectivebone   
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES acid Hydrophilic
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a very hydrophobic N terminus, which was predicted to be a signal peptide
  • mono polymer homomer , heteromer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Mip-1beta (see IMC1@)
    homolog to C.elgans F59B10.5
    homolog to Drosophila eg:bacr25b3.3
    intraspecies paralog to SCYA4L1
    paralog to CCL4L1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • intercrine beta family
  • CC subfamily (small inducible cytokine, chemokine beta)
  • CATEGORY adhesion , immunity/defense , signaling cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    text secreted
    basic FUNCTION
  • monocyte, chemoattractant, activated T cell and dendritic cell
  • one of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells
  • playing a role in etablishement of cell polarity
  • contributing to intracellular signaling and other chemokine receptor function
  • promote trophoblast migration at the feto-maternal interface
  • with CCL3, may directly or indirectly affect neuronal excitability, and are implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy
  • principal regulator of macrophage migration and signals through CCR5
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell communication
    cell migration & motility
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense , inflammation
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    cell-cell signaling
    a component
  • MIP1A/MIP1B heterodimer
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding to CCR8
  • natural ligand for the primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor CCR5
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by mitogens
    phytohemagglutinin (in T cells)
    staphylococcus aureus (in B cells)
    lipopolysaccharide (in monocyte)
    Prokineticin 1 (induces CCL4, CXCL1 and IL8 in monocytes but not in macrophages and dendritic cells)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
  • to AIDS
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP influencing HIV Type 1 transmission and AIDS disease progression (Omim: 609423)
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS