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FLASH GENE
Symbol ASCL1 contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 06-05-2015
HGNC name achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Drosophila)
HGNC id 738
Corresponding disease
CCHS4 congenital central hypoventilation syndrome 4
Location 12q23.2      Physical location : 103.351.451 - 103.354.287
Synonym name
  • achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Drosophila)
  • achaete-scute complex (Drosophila) homolog-like 1
  • Drosophila discs absent, small, or homeotic-1 homolog
  • achaete-scute homolog 1
  • class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 46
  • Synonym symbol(s) ASH1, HASH1, MASH1, LACS, LACS2, FACL1, FACL2, bHLHa46
    EC.number 6.2.1.3
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 2.84 kb     2 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map cen - D12S1103 - IGF1 ,D12S318 - D12S1030 - PAH - ASCL1 - D12S1104 - D12S815 - D12S1105 - D12S360 - TRA1 - D12S806 - D12S78 - qter
    Physical map
    SLC5A8 12q23.3 solute carrier family 5 (iodide transporter), member 8 DRIM 12q23 down-regulated in metastasis ARL1 12q23.3 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 1 SPIC 12q23.3 likely ortholog of mouse Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) MYBPC1 12q22-q23 myosin binding protein C, slow type CHPT1 12q11 choline phosphotransferase 1 SYCP3 12q24.2-q24.3 synaptonemal complex protein 3 MGC4170 12q23.3 synaptonemal complex protein 3 LOC387880 12 similar to 10 KD HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN, MITOCHONDRIAL (HSP10) (10 KD CHAPERONIN) (CPN10) FLJ11259 12q23.3 hypothetical protein FLJ11259 LOC390353 12 similar to ribosomal protein L9 CGI-116 12q23.3 CGI-116 protein Nup37 12q23.3 nucleoporin Nup37 FLJ20641 12q23.3 hypothetical protein FLJ20641 PMCH 12q23.1 pro-melanin-concentrating hormone IGF1 12q23.1 insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C) PAH 12q23.1 phenylalanine hydroxylase ASCL1 12q23.1 achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Drosophila) FLJ25323 12q23.3 FLJ25323 protein STAB2 12q33.3 stabilin 2 TU12B1-TY 12q22-q23.1 TU12B1-TY protein LOC253724 12q23.3 hypothetical LOC253724 LOC283350 12q23.3 similar to cDNA sequence BC030307 TRA1 12q23.1 tumor rejection antigen (gp96) 1 LOC387881 12 LOC387881 TDG 12q22-24.1 thymine-DNA glycosylase LOC83468 12q gycosyltransferase HCF-2 12q23.3 host cell factor 2 NFYB 12q22-q23 nuclear transcription factor Y, beta LOC390354 12 similar to ribosomal protein L18a; 60S ribosomal protein L18a TXNRD1 12q23-q24 thioredoxin reductase 1 CHST11 12q23.2-q23.3 carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 DKFZP434K0427 12q24.11 hypothetical protein DKFZp434K0427
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    2 - 2490 25 236 - 2010 20097173
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    blood / hematopoieticthymus    
    Cardiovascularheart    
    Digestiveliver   highly
    Nervousbraindiencephalonhypothalamus  
    Respiratorylung   highly
    Visualeyeretina    Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectiveadipose   
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularendocrine 
    Nervouscentral   
    Nervousperipherous   
    cell lineage present in proliferating progenitor cells but these cells are actively differentiating as evidenced by rapid migration out of germinal zones
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo
    Text embryonic neuronal precursors of both the peripheral and central nervous systems
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • the N terminus
  • one basic helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain
  • two domains similar to those in enzymes of the luciferase family
  • a long gap region between the similar domains and the C terminus
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to Drosophila achaete-scute 1
    ortholog to murine Mash1 (90 pc)
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors
  • long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family
  • ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in the neuronal commitment and differentiation and in the generation of olfactory and autonomic neurons
  • converting free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters
  • playing a role in lipid brosynthesis and fatty acid degradation
  • using preferentially oleate, arachidonate, eicosapentaenoate and docosahexaenoate as substrates
  • involved in the formation of the neuronal network for autonomous control of ventilation
  • proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors not only initiating neuronal differentiation but also potentiating cell migration
  • promote branchiomotor neuron development but also regulate the subsequent oligodendrocyte development and the cytoarchitecture by maintaining neural progenitors through Notch signaling
  • required for normal development of POMC(+) neurons and both required for the generation of ventral neuroendocrine neurons as well as playing a central role in subtype specification of these neurons
  • controls development of the locus coeruleus
  • proneural basic helix–loop–helix transcriptional factor that plays an essential role during neuronal specification of precursor cells
  • bHLH transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and specification in the nervous system
  • required for normal development of the nervous system and has been implicated in the formation of neuroendocrine tumors
  • NEUROG2 and ASCL1 regulate the temporal progression of retinal neurogenesis by directing overlapping waves of neuron formation
  • required for neurogenesis and neuronal subtype specification in the ventral hypothalamus
  • ASCL1 lineage cells contribute to stroke-induced neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in the adult ischemic brain
  • its expression defines a competence-restricted progenitor lineage in the retina, providing a new mechanism to explain fate diversification
  • plays a specific role during the time period when Pcs (Purkinje cells) are generated in restricting ventricular zone progenitors from becoming rhombic lip progenitors
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS digestion
    PATHWAY
    metabolism lipid/lipoprotein
    signaling
    lipid metabolism
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding, cofactor,
  • Mg2+
  • AMP
  • protein
  • interacts with UBQLN1
  • downstream target of FMR1 (improved translation efficiency of ASCL1 mRNA by FMR1 may represent an important regulatory switch in neuronal differentiation)
  • GADD45G is a direct transcriptional target of ASCL1
  • HAND2 can activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) differentiation program by induction of SNS-related genes, including PHOX2B, ASCL1, DBH and TH
  • transcriptional complex of LMO3 and NHLH2 may contribute to the genesis and malignant phenotype of neuroblastoma by inhibiting HES1 which suppresses the transactivation of ASCL1
  • overexpression of DMRTA1 induced the expression of the proneural gene Neurogenin2 (NEUROG2) and conversely repressed ASCL1, a proneural gene expressed in the ventral telencephalon
  • inhibits ASCL1-dependent neurogenesis in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and direct neuronal conversion in fibroblasts
  • GABAergic inducing activity of ASCL1 requires the direct transcriptional regulation of PTF1A, providing therefore a new piece of the network governing neurotransmitter subtype specification during retinogenesis
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by NEUROG2 and ASCL1 are inhibited by CBFA2T2 and CBFA2T3, and less efficiently by RUNX1T1
    Other downregulated in differentiating neuroblastoma cells
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) CCHS4
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    in differentiating neuroblastoma cells
    tumoral     --over  
    in a majority of neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines
    tumoral     --over  
    in progressive astrocytoma in 85.71 p100 of grade II diffuse astrocytoma, 90 p100 of grade III anaplastic astrocytoma
    tumoral     --over  
    87.5 p100 of secondary glioblastoma multiforme
    constitutional        
    results in hypoplasia of both the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei
    tumoral     --other  
    constitutive expression in lung epithelium promotes remodeling through multiple pathways that are commonly activated during lung carcinogenesis
    Susceptibility to Parkinson disease (in association with PHOX2B)
    Variant & Polymorphism repeat polyglutamine length variant with 13 repeats may exert a protective role for Parkinson disease in a Caucasian population
    Candidate gene for congenital hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS4) or modifier of PHOX2B
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • In Mash1-deficient mice, defects in thalamocortical axon pathfinding were found to be correlated with altered cell domain
  • mice lacking Ascl1 in the cerebellum have a major decrease in three types of interneurons with a tendency toward a loss of later-born interneurons, as well as an imbalance of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes