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Symbol AR contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 27-06-2019
HGNC name androgen receptor (dihydrotestosterone receptor; testicular feminization; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; Kennedy disease)
HGNC id 644
Corresponding disease
AIS androgen insensitivity syndrome
SBMA spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy
Location Xq12      Physical location : 66.763.873 - 66.944.119
Synonym name
  • dihydrotestosterone receptor
  • nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4
  • Synonym symbol(s) DHTR, NR3C4, KD, AIS, TFM, HUMARA, SBMA, SMAX1
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE arranged in tandem
    STRUCTURE 180.24 kb     8 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence cytosine-phosphate-guanine/HTF
    Binding site   transcription factor   HRE
    motif repetitive sequence   triplet
    text structure
  • two polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments encoding polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N terminal transactivation domain
  • the major site of transcription initiation is approximately 1.1 kb upstream of the initior methionine of AR protein lying in a GC rich region and containing a putative Sp1 binding site characteristic of a "housekeeping" promoter and a 44 base segment composed of alterning adenosine and guanosine residues
  • HRE interacting with an auxiliary factor to elicit androgen-specific regulation of ARNm
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Map cen - DXS1 - AR /SBMA - DXS159 - DXS106 ,DXS132 - qter
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text at least 2
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    - - - 10000 - - major in human prostate 1988 3216866
    - - - 7000 - - less abundant in human prostate 1988 3216866
    - - - 87 - - 1988 3216866
    lacking the normal N terminus found in AR-B
    - - - 110 - - 1988 3216866
    - - - 11000 - - prostate, cancer cell lines 1988 3377788
    - - - 8500 - - prostate, cancer cell lines 1988 3377788
    - - - 4700 - - prostate, cancer cell lines 1988 3377788
    8 - 4314 - 920 - 2011 21878636
  • AR-FL
  • 8 - 1765 - 388 - 2011 21878636
  • AR45
  • 4 - 3812 - 644 - 2011 21878636
  • AR-V7
  • high expression of AR-V7 was correlated with increased XPO1 expression
  • 4 - 2627 - 648 - 2011 21878636
  • AR-V1 or AR4
  • 3 - 3729 - 572 - 2011 21878636
  • AR8
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousbraindiencephalonhypothalamus highly
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland  
     female systemovary   
     male systemprostate   
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow   
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductiveepithelial cell
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • a modulating N-terminal domain with glutamine (poly CAG), proline and glycine (GGC) homopolymeric sequences, motif FXXLF
  • a DNA-binding domain
  • a NLS region that functions as mitotic chromatin binding-determining region and has a novel role in the regulation of the AR association with mitotic chromatin
  • a nuclear export signal (NES)(AR), a nuclear export signal in the ligand binding domain (LBD), playing a key role in AR ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation in prostate cancer cells.
  • a C-terminal steroid-binding domain
  • hydrophobic ligand binding domain, and activation function 2 (AF2)
  • a central bipartite (class II) zinc finger DNA binding domain
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    interspecies ortholog to murine Ar
    ortholog to C.elegans Y73b6a.5
  • steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily
  • nuclear hormone receptors family
  • NR3 subfamily
  • CATEGORY enzyme , transcription factor , protooncogene , receptor nuclear , transport
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • translocation into the nucleus upon binding the hormone ligand
  • GLI1 could be colocalized in the nucleus with AR in the absence of appropriate ligands
  • AR is colocalized with NR4A1 in the nucleus in an androgen-dependent manner
  • basic FUNCTION
  • regulation of androgen action (cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues)
  • steroid hormone activated transcription factor
  • stimulating transcription of androgen responsive genes
  • may function as both a suppressor and a proliferator to suppress or promote prostate cancer metastasis
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
  • sex differentiation
  • small molecule transport
    signaling hormonal
    cell-cell signaling
    a component
  • dimerized upon binding the hormone ligand
  • BCAS2 can form a complex with AR and HSP90AB1, it may function with HSP90 to stabilise AR protein from being degraded by proteasome
    DNA binding
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • MADH3
  • HBOA (modulation of AR activity)
  • androgens
  • RAN
  • with RANBP9, interaction mediated by both the N-terminal domain and the DNA-binding domain
  • interacting with PMEPA1 (negatively regulates the stability of AR protein by enhancing AR ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation through NEDD4)
  • AES physically interacts with the N-terminal domain of AR and inhibits AR-driven transcription
  • MAGEA11 links N-terminal domains of AR and EP300 to promote transcriptional synergy through a cadre of FXXLF-related interacting motifs
  • substrate of Aurora-A and elevated AURKA could contribute to androgen-independent cell growth by phosphorylation and activation of AR
  • physical interaction between GLI1 and AR
  • BTG2 complexing with AR via an LxxLL-dependent mechanism and may play a role in prostate cancer via modulating the AR signaling pathway
  • GLI1 play a central role in SHH signaling in prostate cancer, and can act as a co-repressor to substantially block AR-mediated transactivation, at least in part, by directly interacting with AR
  • DNMT1 operates either as a functional intermediary or in cooperation with E2F1 inhibiting AR gene expression in a methylation independent manner
  • coregulator effects of MAGEA11 on the AR N and C-terminal interaction amplify the androgen-dependent transcriptional response to EP300 required for normal human male sex development in utero
  • ZEB1 binds to an E-box sequence in the AR gene promoter, and physically interacts with AR in human foreskin cells
  • AR protein, translocated into the nucleus in the presence of androgen, modulates likely NR4A1 transactivation
  • ATF3 can directly bind the androgen receptor (AR) and consequently repress AR-mediated gene expression (
  • specific interaction between the mutant androgen receptor (AR), a protein associated with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and the nuclear protein PAXIP1
  • CCT6A interacts with androgen receptor (AR)
  • DDB2 is a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting protein, mediating contact with AR and CUL4A-DDB1 complex for AR ubiquitination/degradation
  • MAGEA11 increases AR transcriptional activity by forming a molecular bridge between transcriptionally active AR dimers
  • ERG redirects AR to a set of genes including SOX9 that are not normally androgen stimulated, and SOX9 is a critical downstream effector of ERG in TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive prostate cancer (PCa)
  • ELF3 is a repressor of AR transcriptional activity
  • KDM4B enzymatic activity is required to enhance AR transcriptional activity
  • MAZ and AR are interrelated and MAZ plays an important role in Prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis
  • WDR77 is a coactivator of androgen receptor (AR), with distinct growth suppression and promotion function in gender specific endocrine organs and their malignancies
  • UBE2B is a critical target gene of AR in Sertoli cells, mediating the function of AR in spermatogenesis by promoting H2A ubiquitylation
  • AR-CCL4-STAT3 axis is key regulator during prostate tumor initiation, suggesting important roles of infiltrating macrophages and inflammatory cytokines for the prostate tumorigenesis
  • acts in a pro-proliferative manner by stabilizing AR and enhancing its cellular function
  • IPO7 binding to AR, however, inhibits import by shielding the bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS)
  • MLXIPL interacts with AR and regulates its transcriptional activity
  • CACUL1 directly associates with AR and suppresses AR transcriptional activity
  • ING2 interacts with AR and hampers the AR transcriptional activation, causes growth arrest, and induces cellular senescence
  • potential crosstalk between ING1 and ING2 tumor suppressors to inhibit AR signaling and induce cellular senescence in PCa cells
  • FOXA1 is a negative regulator of SEMA3C and SEMA3C is a novel target of AR, GATA2, and FOXA1
  • DHX15 regulates AR activity by modulating E3 ligase SIAH2-mediated AR ubiquitination independent of its ATPase activity
  • functional interplay between AR and SRARP in breast cancer
  • SUMO3 modification of PIAS1 modulates AR cellular distribution and stability
  • AR cooperates with SMAD4 to maintain skeletal muscle homeostasis
  • cell & other
    activated by DAPK3 (interaction of DAPK3 with AR seems to be mediated in part by apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor and in part by direct binding)
    induced by FOXO3A
    repressed by MADH3 (repression of AR mediated transcription)
    Phosphorylated by CDK9 (phosphorylation of AR S81 is an important step in regulating AR transcriptional activity and prostate cancer cell growth)
    Other coregulated by SMAD3 in prostate cancer cells
    androgen induces SUMO2 and SUMO3 modification (SUMOylation) of the endogenous AR in prostate cancer cells, which is also reflected in the chromatin-bound receptor
    corresponding disease(s) AIS , SBMA
    related resource Androgen receptor
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   amplification    
    in prostate and breast cancers
    tumoral     --over  
    of both AR and ZNF652 in clinically organ-defined prostate cancer are associated with a statistically increased risk of relapse (Pubmed 20204290)
    constitutional     --over  
    in patients with severe hypospadias
  • to prostate cancer and uterine endometrial carcinoma with expansion of CAG repeat
  • early-onset androgenetic alopecia(AGA)
  • to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  • to postmenopausal breast cancer risk
  • to idiopathic male infertility
  • to isolated hypospadias
  • Variant & Polymorphism repeat , other
  • expansion of polyglutamine tract causes SBMA (Kennedy disease)
  • a smaller size of the polyGLN region may be associated with the development of prostate cancers or with PCOS
  • GGN repeats variation increasing the risk of AGA
  • variants may modify hormone therapy associated postmenopausal breast cancer risk
  • association between increased androgen receptor CAG length and idiopathic male infertility, suggesting that even subtle disruptions in the androgen axis may compromise male fertility
  • boys with isolated hypospadias have longer CAG alleles in AR, which may be related with the development of this congenital malformation
  • Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    modulation of ELF3 expression and/or AR/ELF3 interaction may have utility in the treatment of prostate carcinoma
    . ideal therapeutic approach(es) could be to target the proliferative function or suppressive function of AR separately, which could be achieved by development of specific vehicles that carry androgens only to those prostate cells with AR suppressive func
    transgenic mice developing many of the motor sympltoms of SBMA