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FLASH GENE
Symbol S100A1 contributors: mct - updated : 10-02-2016
HGNC name S100 calcium binding protein A1
HGNC id 10486
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • two calcium binding domains with an EF-hand motif
  • one S100 specific Nter
  • one classical at the C terminus with an extension implicated in the recognition of GFAP, tubulin, TP53
  • mono polymer homomer , heteromer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • EF-hand family
  • CATEGORY chaperone/stress
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,nucleus
    text sarcoplasmic reticulum, contractile filaments of heart
    basic FUNCTION
  • stimulatun of Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release
  • Ca(2+)-sensing protein regulator of myocardial contractility, playing a pivotal role in cardiac contractility
  • might play a key role in cardiac energy metabolism
  • potent molecular chaperone antagonized by calmodulin antagonists
  • enhancer of cardiac Ca2+ release and contractility
  • playing a significant role in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, primarily through specific interactions with a conserved binding domain of the ryanodine receptor
  • association of S100A1, and to a lesser extent S100B, with the human articular chondrocytes (HAC) differentiated phenotype
  • S100A1 and S100B are dispensable for endochondral ossification during skeletal development, most likely because their deficiency may be masked by other S100 proteins which have similar functions
  • plays a crucial role in hypoxia-induced inflammatory response in cardiomyocytes
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • constituent of epidermal diffentiation
  • dimerizing with a S100A or a S100B chain
  • member of the multichaperone complex
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Ca2+
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • inhibiting PRKC mediated phosphorylation
  • transcriptional target of the SOX trio (SOX5, SOX6, SOX9) and mediate its inhibition of terminal differentiation of chondrocytes
  • interaction of S100A1 with mitochondrial F(1)-ATPase, which affects F(1)-ATPase activity and cellular ATP production
  • with S100A2, S100A4 and S100A6, interacting with MDM2, making the binding to MDM2 a general feature of S100 proteins
  • S100A1 and CALM1 bind to an overlapping domain on the ryanodine receptor type 1 to tune the Ca2+ release process, and thereby regulate skeletal muscle function
  • S100A1, S100A2, S100A6, and S100B proteins specifically interact with PPP5C-tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain
  • CALM1 and S100A1 serve as important regulators of TRPM3, which is known to play an important role in Ca2+ homeostasis
  • S100A1 protein binds the same regions with equal affinity on the TRPM3 N terminus to CALM1
  • involvement of three basic residues in the integrative overlapping binding site for S100A1 on the C tail of TRPC6
  • S100A1 competes with CALM1 and INP5JJ for binding site on the C-terminus of the TPRV1 receptor
  • CALM1 and S100A1 can concurrently bind to and functionally modulate RYR1 and RYR2, but this does not involve direct competition at the RYR CALM binding site
  • interaction between stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) and S100A1
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    in cardiomyopathies
    constitutional        
    results in pulmonary hypertension (PH), by disruption of its normal capacity to enhance pulmonary endothelial cell function
    constitutional     --low  
    in failing hearts
    constitutional     --low  
    suppresses physiological AP-induced Ca(2+) release flux, resulting in impaired contractile activation and force production in skeletal muscle
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • S100A1 and S100B expression are marker to develop potency assays for cartilage regeneration cell therapies
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    neuromuscularmyopathy 
    therapeutic target for the treatment of both cardiac and skeletal myopathies
    cardiovascularcardiomyopathy 
    cardiovascular  
    ability of exogenously administered S100A1 makes it an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of Pulmonary hypertension (PMID: 25395393)
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • ATP synthase activity is reduced in cardiomyocytes from S100a1 knockout mice
  • mice deficient of both the S100a1 and S100b genes displayed normal skeletal growth from embryonic stage to adulthood
  • S100a1-knock-out mice (KO) exhibited increased right ventricular (RV) weight/body weight ratio and elevated RV pressure in the absence of altered left ventricular filling pressures, accompanied by increase in wall thickness of muscularized pulmonary arteries and a reduction in microvascular perfusion