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Symbol DDIT3 contributors: npt/shn - updated : 08-06-2015
HGNC name DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3
HGNC id 2726
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
4 splicing 924 - 169 - -
4 splicing 910 - 169 - -
also called variant 5/isoform 2
3 splicing 1191 - 192 - -
also called variant 4/isoform 1
4 splicing 1005 - 192 - -
also called variant 3/isoform 1
4 splicing 1028 - 192 - -
also called variant 2/isoform 1
4 splicing 1081 - 192 - -
also called variant 1/isoform 1
Type ubiquitous
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
blood / hematopoieticthymus   highly
Digestivestomach   highly
Visualeye   highly
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow  highly
Muscularstriatumskeletal highly
cell lineage
cell lines
  • basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein
  • mono polymer heteromer , dimer
    interspecies ortholog to Ddit3, Mus musculus
    ortholog to Ddit3, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to ddit3, Danio rerio
    ortholog to DDIT3, Pan troglodytes
  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • dominant negative regulator of several C/EBP transcription factors, involved in erythroid growth and differentiation possibly through interaction with both C/EBP and non C/EBP family members
  • playing a role in the regulation of AKR1A1 expression in the liver
  • blocking adipogenesis, and inducing osteoblastogenesis
  • stress-inducible nuclear protein that is crucial for the development of programmed cell death and regeneration
  • ER stress-DDIT3 pathway plays a role in neuronal apoptosis during the development of the brain
  • involved in DNA damage, growth arrest, and the induction of apoptosis after endoplasmic reticulum stress and nutrient deprivation
  • apoptosis-regulated gene, increasing during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress
  • plays a role in stretch-induced vascular smooth muscle cells apoptosis
  • functions as a dimer to inhibit the DNA-binding activity of C/EBP and liver-enriched activator protein
  • the elevated cellular DDIT3 levels could contribute to ER stress-mediated apoptosis after change of BRSK2 protein
  • role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolism
  • is not strictly an apoptotic regulator but carries out non-apoptotic physiological functions as well
  • is an important regulator of hepatic hepcidin expression in chronic liver disease
  • regulated expression of DDIT3 during obesity is critical for adaptation to chronic caloric excess and maintenance of energy homeostasis via integration of metabolic and immune systems
  • plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-dependent vascular calcification
  • promotes liver damage during acute liver failure (ALF) through activation of ERO1A, a key mediator to link ER stress and ROS
  • induces cell death and inflammatory responses following saturated free fatty acid exposure by activating NFKB1 through a pathway involving IRAK2 expression
  • plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) through induction of secreted factors that trigger inflammation and hepatocellular death via a signaling pathway specific to human hepatocytes
  • is the key signal for myocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by methylglyoxal (MGO)
  • NR1H4 and DDIT3 have critical functions in hepatic lipid metabolism
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    nucleotide, repair
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    a component
    DNA PUMA promoter during endoplasmic reticulum stress (
    small molecule
  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, CEBPB (
  • activating transcription factor 3, ATF3 (
  • growth-promoting AP-1 transcription factor family, JunD, c-Jun, and c-Fos, to activate promoter elements in the somatostatin, JunD, and collagenase genes (
  • casein kinase II, CK2 (
  • CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon, CEBPE (
  • tribbles homolog 3 (Drosophila), TRB3 (
  • hypusination by DHPS is required for the ongoing production of proteins, particularly DDIT3, in response to ER stress in the beta cell
  • DDIT3 is a specific RNASEL target, and RNASEL is an essential regulator of adipogenesis via the regulation of DDIT3 mRNA
  • DDIT3, a protein known to regulate Ca2+ release from the ER during ER stress, amplifies NLRP3 inflammasome activation
  • LCN2 is a new DDIT3 target gene that mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis
  • PARM1 may regulate EIF2AK3, ATF6, and DDIT3 expression through BMP2 expression
  • necessary for suppression of genes encoding the transcriptional master regulators of lipid metabolism: CEBPA, PPARA, and SREBF1
  • induces activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) to trigger apoptosis in response to perturbations in protein homeostasis, and both ATF5 and DDIT3 have proapoptotic functions
  • FGF21 is the target gene for activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein homologous protein (DDIT3)
  • BCL2L1 protein protects from DDIT3-dependent apoptosis during plasma cell differentiation
  • ERO1A, a target of DDIT3, is an important oxidizing enzyme that regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a prominent role in hepatocellular death during acute liver failure (ALF)
  • DDIT3 and KAT2A cooperatively up-regulate TNFRSF10A and TNFRSF10B
  • protects pancreatic beta-cells against ER stress-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating BIRC5 expression and down-regulating DDIT3 expression, which we termed as "positive and negative regulation
  • ELANE induces endothelial cell apoptosis by activating the EIF2AK3/DDIT3 branch of the unfolded protein response
  • NR1H4 controls DDIT3 expression in steatohepatitis
  • cell & other
    induced by DNA -damage
    repressed by JDP2 functionally associated with HDAC3
    corresponding disease(s) DDIT3
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   translocation    
    translocated with FUS in t(12;16)(q13;p11) and with ESWR1 in t(12;22)(q13;q12) in myxoid liposarcoma
    constitutional       loss of function
    in conjunction with a COMP mutation, may lead to aggravation of the skeletal phenotype via a potentially synergistic effect on endochondral ossification
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    therapeutic potential of CHOP inhibition in the management of diabetic cardiovascular complications including diabetic cardiomyopathy
    targeting DDIT3/ERO1A signalling could be a novel therapeutic approach during acute liver failure (ALF)
  • Chop-null mice are resistant to fibrosis, which is a key risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)