Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Orphanet Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
Symbol PTEN contributors: mct - updated : 28-08-2019
HGNC name phosphatase and tensin homolog (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1)
HGNC id 9588
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
text alternatively spliced (PMID: 10978354)
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
9 - 5572 - 403 - -
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivepharynx   highly
Endocrineparathyroid   highly
Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea highly
Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   highly
Nervousbrainlimbic systemhippocampus highly Homo sapiens
 brain   highly Homo sapiens
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Connective   highly
Connectiveadipose  highly
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
Visualganglion cell Mus musculusFetal
Visualhorizontal association cell Mus musculusFetal
cell lineage
cell lines glioblastoma cell line
physiological period embryo
Text development tissue (skin, thyroid, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomomic nervous system and gastroiintestinal tract)
  • phosphatase domains are located within the N-terminus, with intermittent helices and beta-strands
  • a large region of homology with chicken tensin and auxilin
  • a C-terminal region with PEST sequence and a PDZ binding motif, a typical PDZ domain-binding motif that interacts with several PDZ domain-containing proteins
  • mono polymer monomer
    interspecies homolog to C.elegans C25A1.3
    homolog to rattus Pten (99.50 pc)
    homolog to murine Pten (99.75 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to phosphatase
    homolog to tensin
  • non-receptor class of protein-tissue phosphate family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , tumor suppressor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
  • localizes to the nucleus coincident with the G0-G1 phases of the cell cycle and compartmentalization may regulate cell cycle progression dependent upon the down-regulation of cyclin D1
  • nuclear PTEN down-regulates cyclin D1 transcription and this event is mediated by the down-regulation of MAPK specifically by nuclear localized PTEN
  • secreted in exosomes, and internalized by recipient cells with resultant functional activity, which resulted in reduced phosphorylation of the serine and threonine kinase AKT1 and reduced cellular proliferation
  • basic FUNCTION
  • lipid phosphatase, antagonizing signal transduction downstream of PI-3 kinase by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-triphosphate (PtdInsP) and suppression of cell growth through the negative regulation of cell cycle and cell survival
  • modulating cell cycle progression and cell survival (blockage) through down-regulating the positive cell cycle-regulator (cycle D1) by its phosphatase activity and up-regulating the negative cell cycle regulator p21 (by its lipid phosphatase activity)
  • negative regulator of cell interactions with the extracellular matrix
  • negative regulator of PI3 kinase signaling, alters tau phosphorylation in cells by mechanisms independent of GSK-3
  • control of tumor-induced angiogenesis
  • nuclear PTEN plays a role through cell cycle suppression functions in regulating carcinogenesis
  • playing a fundamental role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability through the physical interaction with centromeres and control of DNA repair
  • a potential role of acetylation in regulating PTEN function
  • may safeguard against developing malignant tumors in patients with TSC deficiency
  • regulated signalling molecule at the synapse, which is recruited to the postsynaptic membrane upon NMDA receptor activation, and is required for the modulation of synaptic activity during plasticity
  • regulated component of the intracellular signalling machinery that controls synaptic transmission and plasticity at hippocampal excitatory synapses
  • may be having a specific postsynaptic function at excitatory hippocampal synapses, and potential critical mediator of long-term depression in hippocampal neurons
  • nuclear phophatase of a transcription factor
  • PTEN and SOCS3 regulate two independent pathways that act synergistically to promote enhanced axon regeneration
  • controls key metabolic pathways through PI3K-dependent and -independent functions and negatively impacts tumor metabolic pathways: glycolysis and glutaminolysis
  • crucial dose-dependent role of PTEN in cancer progression
  • is a key node for the control of obesity and tumorigenesis
  • integral component of a novel cell positioning pathway in the retina
  • PTEN acting through PTK2, the direct protein substrate of PTEN, prevents ERK activation
  • paradoxically, positively regulates neuronal insulin signaling and glucose uptake
  • regulation of axonal growth and neuromuscular junction formation by neuronal PTEN signaling
  • PTEN and MYC exist in homeostatic balance to control normal growth, which is disrupted in cancer cells c
  • phosphatase having both protein and lipid phosphatase activities, and is known to antagonize the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway, resulting in tumor suppression
  • both PTEN and INPP4B are dual specificity phosphatases and tumor suppressors
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    nucleotide, genomic integrity
    metabolism lipid/lipoprotein
    signaling signal transduction
  • PI3K pathway
  • molecular pathway PTEN-CEBPA-CTNNA1 which is evolutionarily conserved, and controls myeloid development and transformation
  • PI3K/PTEN pathway plays an important role in TRPC6 activation
  • PI3K/PTEN pathway is involved in the externalization of TRPC6 and in TRPC6-dependent Ca2+ entry
  • tumor suppressor in the AKT1/MTOR pathway
  • a component
  • MC1R-PTEN axis is a central regulator for melanocytes response to UVB exposure revealing the molecular basis underlying the association between MC1R variants and melanomagenesis
    small molecule cofactor,
  • Mg2+
  • protein
  • MAPK, blocks MAPK, phosphorylation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IRS1 (down regulation of cyclin D1)
  • PI3K/AKT implicating cell death and/or cell cycle arrest
  • stimulating TNFSF10 through FOXO3 activation
  • interacting with STK11
  • negative regulator of the PI3K pathway, that is a key downstream target of NEDD4 (NEDD4-regulated PTEN is a key regulator of terminal arborization)
  • interacting with EGR1 (EGR1–PTEN network was found to influence synovial sarcoma cell survival, showing that SS18–SSX-mediated attenuation of this pathway enables these cells to escape cell death)
  • SEMA4D/PLXNB1 promotes the dephosphorylation and activation of PTEN through the RRas GAP activity, inducing growth cone collapse
  • association between PTEN and DLG4, association that requires the PDZ motif at the PTEN C-terminus
  • CREB1 is a protein target of PTEN phosphatase and PTEN deficiency leads to CREB1 phosphorylation independent of the PI3K/AKT pathway (MID: 21385900)
  • PTEN interacts with metal-responsive transcription factor 1 and stimulates its transcriptional activity
  • novel role of PTEN in regulating stress response through modulating the PPP1R15B/EIF2S1 pathway
  • PPARD regulates the expression of PTEN at the transcriptional level
  • MIR29B is an upstream molecule of PTEN (regulates PTEN gene expression through downregulating DNMTS expression and subsequently induces hypomethylation in PTEN promoter
  • PI3K/PTEN pathway plays an important role in the translocation of TRPC6 to the plasma membrane and may thus have a significant impact on Ca2+ signaling in cells that endogenously express TRPC6
  • posttranslational regulatory network in which the PTEN and FBXW7 pathways appear to converge on the regulation of Aurora-A level
  • CBLB inhibits T cell activation by suppressing PTEN inactivation independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity
  • PTEN secretion in exosomes required NDFIP1, an adaptor protein for members of the NEDD4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases
  • PTEN and PIKFYVE are two major players in phagosomal PtdIns(3)P metabolism
  • PPP1R10 directly interacted with the lipid-binding domain (C2 domain) of PTEN and sequestered it in the nucleus
  • might act as a negative regulator of NCOA3 whereby the association of PTEN with NCOA3 and FBXW7 could lead to the downregulation of NCOA3 transcriptional activity
  • PBK and PTEN are new players in CHFR mediated mitotic checkpoint
  • nuclear/chromatin PTEN mediates DNA damage repair through interacting with and modulating the activity of RAD52
  • chromatin PTEN is involved in DNA damage response partly through regulating RAD52 sumoylation
  • nuclear trafficking of PTEN required both RAB5A as well as the E3 ligase adaptor protein NDFIP1
  • ERBB2, MYC, WIF1, RBM38, PTEN, are involved in the HOTAIR regulation network
  • OTUD3 is a deubiquitylase of PTEN
  • expression of PTEN, the primary negative regulator of PI3K/Akt, was significantly reduced in MEF2D-deficient cardiomyocytes and found to be a direct target gene of MEF2D
  • PTEN is physically associated with a decatenation enzyme TOP2A and PTEN influences its stability through OTUD3 deubiquitinase
  • PARL genetically interact and process PTEN-induced putative kinase a protein known for its critical role in mitochondrial homeostasis
  • reciprocal regulation of PREX2 by PTEN whereby loss of PTEN results in a dramatic increase in expression of PREX2 at the protein level
  • PTEN regulates spindle pole movement through DLG1-mediated recruitment of KIF11 to centrosomes
  • functional interplay between PTEN and KIF11 in controlling mitotic spindle structure and chromosome behaviour during mitosis
  • PTEN, INPP5J and INPP4B distinctly regulate PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signalling downstream of PI3K and dysregulation of these phosphatases affects cancer outcomes
  • protein phosphatase activity of PTEN dephosphorylates and inhibits autophosphorylated PGK1, thereby inhibiting glycolysis, ATP production, and brain tumor cell proliferation
  • cell & other
    activated by lovastatin that may signal through PPARgamma and directly upregulate PTEN expression at the transcriptional level
    SREBF1, known to induce PPAR gamma expression
    induced by BMP2 (through stimulation of the SMAD pathway)
    inhibited by phosphorylation
    oxidation of the cysteine at the phosphatase active site
    Other downregulation playing a role in inactivation in thyroid cancer
    phosphorylated by STK11
    stability negatively regulated by polyubiquitination catalyzed by NEDD4-1
    up-regulated by HIF1alpha in absence of TSC2
    post-translationally modified by the small ubiquitin-like proteins, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO1) and SUMO2
    corresponding disease(s) BZS , JPS2 , MHAM , PROTLS , MCAUTS
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   insertion    
    insertion/deletion in endometrial carcinomas, deletion in thyroid cancers (or transient ectopic expression)
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    in PTEN-hamartoma syndrome (Proteus-Proteus-like syndrome, Bannayan and Cowden syndrome), and in VATER association with hydrocephaly
    tumoral   LOH    
    in hepatocellular carcinoma
    tumoral       loss of function
    in hamartoma, glioma, uterus carcinoma
    tumoral       loss of function
    in Bannayan and Cowden syndrome
    tumoral germinal mutation      
    in Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) , a rare cerebellar tumor associated with Cowden disease
    tumoral       loss of function
    in deficient intestinal stem cells and initiate intestinal polyposis
    tumoral     --low  
    in melanomas
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    heterozygous Arg234Gln in a patient with brain tumors of multiple lineages
    tumoral   deletion    
    Loss of PTEN and concomitant activation of AKTcould act in partnership with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein to promote progression to prostatecancer
    tumoral     --low  
    loss of PTEN expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival in patients with stage II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    tumoral     --other  
    significant disruption of all three members of the PTEN-SLC9A3R1-PHLPP1 tumor suppressor network in high-grade glioma
    Susceptibility to Autism spectrum disorder
    Variant & Polymorphism other haploinsufficiency for PTEN may be a genetic risk factor for abnormal brain development in response to exposure to environmental toxins that impinge on the PI3K pathway
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    inhibition of PTEN nuclear translocation may represent a novel after stroke therapy
    PTEN elevation hence represents a potentially attractive therapeutic approach that prevent cancer development
    PTEN elevation hence represents a potentially attractive therapeutic approach that could increase energy expenditure to oppose fat accumulation and obesity
    therapeutic target for breast cancer therapy