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Symbol NPPA contributors: mct/npt - updated : 12-01-2018
HGNC name natriuretic peptide precursor A
HGNC id 7939
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
3 - 858 - 101 - 2015 25260157
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheartatrium  highly Homo sapiens
Digestivesalivary glandparotid  highly Homo sapiensAdult
 salivary glandparotid  highly Homo sapiensFetal
Nervousbrain   moderately
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Muscularstriatumcardiac highly Homo sapiens
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Muscularmyocyte Homo sapiens
cell lineage
cell lines
physiological period embryo
  • in the trabecular layer of the left ventricle and weakly expressed in the atrium and the trabecular layer of the right ventricle
  • in pre-implantation embryos and in self-renewing sembryonic stem cells
  • a signal sequence
  • conserved 17-AAs disulfide-linked ring structure that is required for biological activity (Dickey 2009)
  • a region of homology to the porcine vasoactive peptide cardiodilatin and the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the C terminal region
  • isoforms Precursor
  • natriuretic peptide family
  • CATEGORY regulatory
    basic FUNCTION
  • directly influencing blood pressure, body fluid homeostasis and kidney function
  • regulates sodium and water balance, blood pressure and myocardial mass through direct effects on the kidney, vasculature and heart and is involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and heart failure
  • NPPB, NPPA, NPPC activate guanylyl cyclase suggesting a potential role in maintaining lens epithelial cell homeostasis (PMID;
  • regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation
  • regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK
  • enhances mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased oxygen consumption and induction of key mitochondrial genes
  • regulates lipid catabolism and enhances energy dissipation through AMPK activation in adipocytes
  • new function of corin and NPPA in promoting trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling
  • profoundly inhibits evoked release of glutamate from the axonal terminals of medial habenula (MHb) to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) neurons
  • blocks neurotransmission by depleting presynaptic cAMP concentrations
  • might play a role in the differentiation of the parotid gland similarly as in brain and during fetal growth NPPA may play a role in the regulating the secretion of primitive salivary fluid, even if acini are still not developed
  • concerted action of NPPA and DRD1 to regulate sodium homeostasis in nephrotic syndrome
  • protective mechanism of NPPA against pathologic vascular hyperpermeability, suggesting a novel pharmacological intervention for the prevention of increased vascular leak via PAK1-dependent modulation of ARHGEF2 activity
  • early and specific marker for functional myocardium of the embryonic heart
  • importance of the endogenous NPPA/NPPB-NPR1 system not only in the neovascularization of ischemic tissues but also in embryonic vascular development and organ morphogenesis
  • importance of KLF10 and NPPA/NPR1 in exerting influences on chronic pulmonary disease pathogenesis
  • enhances endothelial barrier function by reducing RHOA activity and reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
    small molecule
  • OSTN binds to NPR3 competitively with NPPA and may affect NPPA concentrations in a local or systemic manner
  • selective activation of the PRKAA2 by NPPA is essential for NPPA mediated lipolysis in adipocytes and has several important potential implications which are relevant to the role of NPPA in exercise, heart failure and obesity and insulin resistance
  • NKX2-5 and its responsive cis-regulatory DNA elements are essential for NPPA expression selectively in the developing heart
  • PDE2A plays an essential role in the NPPA effect on synaptic transmission
  • cooperative mechanism where ANXA6 potentiates NPPA-dependent counterhypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes by facilitating regulated traffic of pro-NPPA
  • in the developing mammalian ventricles NPPA plays a local paracrine role in regulating the balance between cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) proliferation and differentiation via NPR1/cGMP-mediated signaling pathways
  • via its receptor, NPR1, NPPA maintains cardiovascular homeostasis by exerting diuretic, natriuretic, and hypotensive effects mediated, in part, by endothelial cells
  • CCM2 and PAK4 are important downstream mediators of NPPA/NPR1 signaling involved in cell spreading, an important initial step in the enhancement of endothelial barrier function
  • NSD3 decreases NPPA expression and, thereby, attenuates ISO-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy
  • cell & other
    induced by CAMTA1, which induces the expression of the anti-proliferative cardiac hormone natriuretic peptide A (NPPA)
    corresponding disease(s) ATFB6 , ATRST2
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in congestive heart failure
  • to nephropathy and microvascular damage in type 1 diabetes
  • to blood pressure variation
  • development of ischemic stroke
  • to cardioembolic stroke
  • Variant & Polymorphism other
  • polymorphism 2238C affect the course of nephropathy in inadequately controlled type 1 diabetic patients
  • common genetic variants at the NPPA-NPPB locus found to be associated with circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations contribute to interindividual variation in blood pressure and hypertension (Newton-Cheh 2009)
  • association between frequent nonsynonymous variant of NPPA and cardioembolic stroke
  • NPPA genetic polymorphism and serum NPPA levels may contribute to the development of ischemic stroke
  • Candidate gene
  • NPPA genetic polymorphism and serum NPPA levels could be potential biomarkers for early detection of ischemic stroke
  • marker of heart failure in children with left ventricular volume overload
  • Therapy target
  • pregnant corin- or Nppa-deficient mice developed high blood pressure and proteinuria, characteristics of pre-eclampsia