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Symbol BRCA1 contributors: mct/shn - updated : 03-06-2019
HGNC name breast cancer 1, early onset
HGNC id 1100
Corresponding disease
BRCA1 hereditary breast/ovarian cancer
FANCS Fanconi anemia, complementation group S
Location 17q21.31      Physical location : 41.196.312 - 41.277.500
Synonym name
  • BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 1
  • RING finger protein 53
  • breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility protein 1
  • breast and ovarian cancer sususceptibility protein 1
  • breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein
  • protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 53
  • Synonym symbol(s) RNF53, BRCC1, PSCP, BRCAI, IRIS, BROVCA1, PPP1R53, PNCA4
    EC.number 6.3.2.-
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 81.19 kb     23 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Binding site   transcription factor
    motif repetitive sequence   ALU
    text structure
  • TATA less, several binding sites for transcription factors
  • an AUG triplet upstream exon 1b, high density of Alu repetitive DNA
  • two evolutionarily conserved noncoding sequences (CNS1 and 2) in intron 2, 5 kb downstream of the core BRCA1 promoter, having differential transcriptional regulatory activity in epithelial cell lines
  • promoter is regulated by a variety of stimuli, including estrogen stimulation, DNA damage and hypoxia
  • active control of chromatin marks, DNA accessibility and gene expression at the BRCA1 promoter by a'metabolic switch' provides an important molecular link between caloric intake and tumor suppressor expression in mammary cells
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Map cen - D17S1793 - D17S1801 - BRCA1 BRCA1 - D17S1789 - D17S951 - qter
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    23 splicing initiation site 7224 207.7 1863 . widely . nuclear 2006 16460311
    isoform 1
    18 splicing initiation site 7287 207.7 1884 - 2006 16460311
  • BRCA1-delta14-18
  • isoform 2
  • 15 splicing 7132 - 1816 . widely . reduced or absent in several breast and ovarian cancer cell lines . cytoplasmic 2006 16460311
  • BRCA1-delta2-10
  • isoform 3
  • 20 splicing 3699 - 759 - 2006 16460311
  • BRCA1-delta9-11
  • isoform 4
  • 19 splicing 3800 - 699 cytoplasmic 2006 16460311
  • BRCA1-delta14-17
  • isoform 5
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    blood / hematopoieticthymus   highly
    Nervousbrainhindbraincerebellum highly Homo sapiens
     brainlimbic systemhippocampusdentate gyrushighly Homo sapiens
    Reproductivefemale systemovary   
     female systembreast   
     male systemtestis  highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
     epithelial cell
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo
  • high levels of BRCA1 expression have been found in the embryonic neuroectoderm
  • a N terminal RING zinc finger domain, and N-terminus of BRCA1 harbors a degron sequence that is sufficient and necessary for conferring BRCA1 degradation
  • a sequence homology in the C terminal part, with the putative consensus sequence of granin family
  • two BRCT adaptor domains BRCTN and BRCTC, BRCA C terminus (BRCT) motifs that form a phosphoprotein recognition domain, and BRCT phosphoprotein recognition, but not the E3 ligase activity, is required for BRCA1 tumor suppression
  • a tandem repeat of the BRCT domain (BRCT-tan), playing a critical role in BRCA1-mediated tumour suppression, and are phospho-serine/threonine recognition modules essential for the function of BRCA1
  • an N-terminal nuclear export sequence (NES)
  • a C-terminal fragment that is unstable in cells as it is targeted for degradation by the N-end rule pathway, and is stable in cells lacking ATE1, a component of the N-end rule pathway
  • a gamma-tubulin-binding domain
  • conjugated PhosphoP
    interspecies ortholog to Brca1, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to Brca1, Mus musculus
    ortholog to BRCA1, Pan troglodytes
    CATEGORY regulatory , transcription factor , tumor suppressor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
  • nucleus in normal cells, intranuclear foci formation induced by interaction with BARD1
  • N terminus and C-terminal BRCT domains is sufficient to mediate effective BRCA1 targeting to the centrosome
  • BCL2 and BRCA1 colocalized to mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in a process requiring the TM domain of BCL2
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the dynamics of the mitotic spindle and in the segregation of duplicated chromosomes
  • negative regulator of mammary cell growth (in a RB-dependent fashion)
  • activating DNA repair through homologous recombination, in cooperation with BRCA2, RAD51 and RAD52, P-BRCA
  • playing a significant role by its ubiquitin ligase activity in tumour suppression
  • regulating the G2/M checkpoint by activating CHEK1 upon DNA damage
  • complexing with RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and involved in the regulation of hol-pol function
  • recruiting CREBBP/EP300 and interacting with components of the histone deacetylase complex in cooperation with STAT1
  • mediating ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-dependent ubiquitination through the RING finger domain (ubiquitin protein ligase activity)
  • induction of BRCA1 triggers JNK/SAPK (MAPK8) dependent apoptosis through induction of DDIT1 (GADD45)
  • transcriptional control through modulation of chromatin structure
  • having critical function in the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells
  • is required for the proliferative effects of EZH2
  • required for appropriate cell cycle arrests after ionizing irradiation
  • involved in transcriptional regulation of P21 in response to DNA damage
  • exerts transcriptional repression through interaction with RBBP8 in the C-terminal BRCT domain and ZNF350 in the central domain)
  • involved in regulation of lipid biosynthesis through its inhibition of ACACA activity, which could be a novel tumor suppressor function of BRCA1
  • required for FANCD2 targeting to sites of DNA damage
  • inhibits lipid synthesis by binding to inactive phosphorylated ACACA and preventing its dephosphorylation
  • recruited to the telomere in a Rad50-dependent manner and may regulate telomere length and stability, in part through its presence at the telomere
  • UIMC1/BRCA1 complex, is required for efficient BRCA1 focal recruitment, and suppress excessive DSB (DNA double-strand breaks) end processing, homologous recombination-type DSB repair, and overt chromosomal instability
  • function of BRCA1 in the control of centriole pairing
  • required for postreplication repair after UV-induced DNA damage
  • role of BRCA1 in maintaining global heterochromatin integrity accounts for many of its tumour suppressor functions
  • BRCA1 and its ubiquitin E3 ligase activity are required for gene silencing in constitutive heterochromatin
  • ubiquitin ligase activity of BRCA1 is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquityl-histone H2A mark within constitutive heterochromatic regionsin human cells derived from breast cancers
  • multifunctional protein that also ubiquitinates TUBG1 and, consequently, inhibits microtubule nucleation at the centrosome
  • epigenetically represses MIR155 expression via its association with HDAC2, which deacetylates histones H2A and H3 on the MIR155 promoter
  • BRCA1 and GATA3 corepress FOXC1 to inhibit the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancers
  • functions independently of homologous recombination in DNA interstrand crosslink repair
  • novel functions of BRCA1 in miRNA biogenesis, which may be linked to its tumor suppressor mechanism and maintenance of genomic stability
  • tripartite regulation of homologous recombination by RNF8, BRCA1, and TP53BP1
  • nuclear tumor suppressor that is critical for resolving double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) by homologous recombination (HR)
  • BRCA1 and HSP90AA1 cooperate in homologous and non-homologous DNA double-strand-break repair and G2/M checkpoint activation
  • plays a protective role in heat toxicity and thermal stress induces BRCA1 degradation
  • role of BRCA1 in regulating damage-associated checkpoint and repair responses to HSP90AA1 inhibitors
  • RNF168 is important for HR deficiency in cells with BRCA1 silencing
  • BRCA1 E3 ligase activity regulates the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and, thus, contributes to maintenance of genomic stability
  • BRCA1 and TP53BP1 play decisive roles in the choice of DNA double-strand break repair mechanisms
  • OLA1 plays an important role in centrosome regulation together with BRCA1
  • BRCA1, FANCD2 and CHEK1 are potential targets for the modulation of radiation response in bystander cells
  • during mitosis, BRCA1 and its positive regulator CHEK2 are localized at centrosomes and are required for the regulation of microtubule plus end assembly, thereby ensuring faithful mitosis and numerical chromosome stability
  • BRCA1 and BARD1 might have common as well as separate functions
  • BRCA1 accumulation at DNA damage sites is an important step for its function in the DNA damage response and in DNA repair
  • FANCA, FANCF, FANCL, FANCD2, BRCA1, and BRCA2, are required for mitophagy
  • competes with TP53BP1 early in the repair process to promote HR and restrict error-prone NHEJ
  • likely BRCA1/FANCS may play several distinct roles during the process of DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair
  • complex BRCA1-BARD1 functions in the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks by homologous recombination
  • late role of BRCA1-BARD1 in homologous recombination, an attribute of the tumour suppressor complex that could be targeted in cancer therapy
  • BRCA1 is a POU2F1 ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes POU2F1 degradation to promote oxidative metabolism and restrict tumorigenicity
  • BRCA1-BARD1 functions in DNA repair, replication fork maintenance and tumour suppression
  • function of BARD1 in centrosome regulation in cooperation with BRCA1/OLA1/RACK1
  • BRCA1-BARD1 complex directs the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice to error-free homologous recombination (HR) during the S-G2 stages
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle
    cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    nucleotide, repair
    nucleotide, genomic integrity
    nucleotide, transcription
    protein, ubiquitin dependent proteolysis
    text regulator of gene stability (caretaker)
    metabolism lipid/lipoprotein
    chromosome instability pathway
    a component
  • heterodimer with BARD1 containing a ubiquitin ligase activity that is important for prevention of breast and ovarian cancer and inducing the formation of conjugated ubiquitin structures during DNA replication and repair
  • BRCA1, CCDC98 and UIMC1 form a functional complex and participate in the DNA damage response
  • BRCA1/BARD1 may promote genome stability and tumor suppression through its involvement in other cellular processes, such as mitotic spindle assembly and cell cycle checkpoint control
  • BRCA1/E2F1/RBBP8 binding to ATM promoter activates ATM transcription
  • OLA1 is a part of the BRCA1/BARD1/gamma-tubulin complex that is critically involved in centrosome amplification and microtubule aster formation
  • promoter regions of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1
  • inactive X chromosome
  • RNA
  • small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+ binding
  • protein
  • importin-alpha subunit of the nuclear transport signal receptor
  • Rad51
  • p32 and p65 BRCA1 interacting proteins, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cdc2, cdk2 and E2F
  • BRAP2
  • BAP1
  • p53
  • a component of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) holoenzyme
  • BRCA2
  • c-Myc
  • CtIP
  • gamma-tubulin
  • CtBP
  • RbAp46 and RbAp48, HDAC1 and HDAC2
  • hRad50-hMre11-p95 complex
  • hypophosphorylated form of pRb
  • CBP/p300
  • BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex: MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, and the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 protein complex, and DNA replication factor C, RFC
  • RNA polymerase II
  • STAT1
  • valosin-containing protein, VCP
  • ZBRK1
  • ATF1
  • androgen receptor, AR and p160
  • checkpoint kinase ATR
  • JAK1 and JAK2
  • FANCD2
  • BACH1
  • retinoblastoma suppressor (Rb)-associated protein 46, RbAp46
  • c-Fos oncogene regulator Elk-1
  • LMO4
  • GADD45
  • N-Myc-interacting protein, Nmi
  • c-Abl
  • JUNB and JUND
  • alpha- and beta-tubulin
  • Fanconi anemia protein, FANCA
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Carboxylase alpha, ACCA
  • ER-alpha
  • Stat5a
  • phosphatase 1alpha, PP1alpha
  • Sp1
  • p65/RelA
  • four and a half LIM-only protein 2, FHL2
  • IFI16
  • p53
  • Aurora-A
  • FHL2
  • zinc-finger-containing protein NUFIP
  • nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin/B23, NPM
  • SWI/SNF enzymes
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase 3, MEKK3
  • TRAP220
  • Cdk-activating kinase, CAK
  • Smad3
  • hGCN5, TRRAP, and hMSH2/6
  • poly(A)-binding protein 1, PABP
  • cyclin D1
  • Abraxas and RAP80
  • TR-interacting protein, ATRIP
  • CCDC98
  • aryl hydrocarbon receptor, AhR
  • ERK1/2
  • p14ARF
  • Ku80
  • vitamin D receptor, VDR
  • Rap80
  • NBA1
  • Mediator of Rap80 Interactions and Targeting 40 kd, MERIT40
  • PALB2
  • NINL (
  • centrosomal protein Nlp
  • E2s
  • deleted in breast cancer 1, DBC1/KIAA1967
  • BRD7
  • MRG15
  • UBXN1
  • HERC2
  • UE2I
  • TFII-I
  • BCL2
  • KIAA0101
  • YY1 binds to the promoter of BRCA1, and its overexpression resulted in increased expression of BRCA1 and a number of BRCA1 downstream genes
  • Cockayne syndrome B, CSB
  • BARD1
  • AP2-alpha, PAX2 and ZF5
  • CDK1
  • interaction between the breast/ovarian tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 and the transcription factor GATA3, an interaction, which is important for normal breast differentiation
  • gamma tubulin, CRM1, and Aurora A
  • BRCA1 antagonises TP53BP1-dependent DNA repair in S phase by inhibiting its interaction with chromatin proximal to damage sites
  • claspin (
  • loss of HSP90AA1 function abolishes BRCA1-dependent DSB repair
  • SKP1 regulates BRCA1 protein stability
  • FBXO44 is an important protein that influences BRCA1 protein level
  • BRCA1 heterodimerizes with its partner protein, BARD1, via the RING domain present in both proteins
  • BRCA1-dependent degradation of cyclin B and CDC25C is reversed by proteasome inhibitors and is enhanced following DNA damage, which may represent a possible mechanism to prevent cyclin B and CDC25C accumulation, a requirement for mitotic entry
  • RBBP8 interacts with NBN and BRCA1, and connects CDK and ATM to regulate homologous recombination (HR)-mediated double-strand break repair
  • ZNF423 appeared to be an estrogen-inducible BRCA1 transcription factor
  • DCLRE1B is a nuclease required for efficient localization of the DNA repair proteins, FANCD2 and BRCA1
  • BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of PLK1 by modulating the dynamic interactions of AURKA, BORA, and PLK1
  • TP53BP1 recruitment requires the direct recognition of a DSB-specific histone code and its influence on pathway choice is mediated by mutual antagonism with BRCA1
  • KDM5B is required for efficient DSB repair and for the recruitment of XRCC6 and BRCA1, the essential component of nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination, respectively
  • FAM175A is a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein, playing a role in tumor suppression
  • BRCA1 and BLM interact with RAD50 predominantly in S- and G2-phases, respectively
  • functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor by regulating the protein stability and function of BRCA1 in breast cancer
  • BRCA1 and BRIP1 cooperatively promote interstrand crosslinker induced centrosome amplification through the activation of PLK1
  • gain of function mutant TP53 proteins cooperate with E2F4 to transcriptionally downregulate RAD17 and BRCA1 gene expression
  • CEP72 is a novel BRCA1-interacting protein
  • high levels of CEP72 counteract CHEK2 as a positive regulator of BRCA1 to ensure proper mitotic microtubule assembly
  • BABAM1 is an essential component of the RAP80 ubiquitin recognition complex that targets BRCA1 to DNA damage sites
  • mitotic function of BRCA1 depends on its phosphorylation by the tumor-suppressor kinase CHEK2 and this regulation is required to ensure normal microtubule plus end assembly rates within mitotic spindles
  • dual molecular mechanism by which the CHEK2-BRCA1 axis restrains oncogenic AURKA activity during mitosis and BRCA1 itself is a target for AURKA relevant for chromosomal instability (CIN)
  • ERCC5 is a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR)
  • BRCA1 (FANCS), MDC1, and RNF8 are required for BRCA2 (FANCD1) and SLX4 (FANCP) accumulation on the sex chromosomes during meiosis
  • ZMYM3 regulates BRCA1 localization at damaged chromatin to promote DNA repair
  • ACLY phosphorylation and nuclear localization are necessary for its role in promoting BRCA1 recruitment
  • both BRCA1 and BARD1 bind DNA and interact with RAD51, and BRCA1-BARD1 enhances the recombinase activity of RAD51
  • BRCA1 promotes oxidative metabolism by degrading POU2F1, a transcription factor with proglycolytic and tumorigenic effects
  • regulation of BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimerization through SIRT2 deacetylation, elucidating a critical upstream signaling event directing BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimerization, which facilitates HR and tumor suppression
  • novel function of the BRCA1-BARD1 complex in the regulation of TOP2B and Pol II-mediated gene expression
  • cell & other
  • SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex through SMARCA4
  • associated with the centrosome during mitosis
    repressed by
  • LMO4 in association with RBBP8 in breast tissue
  • CTBP1 (represses BRCA1 transcription by binding to the E2F4 site of the BRCA1 promoter)
    Brg-1 and ets-2
    Phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein-related protein kinase, ATR
    CDK2-cyclin A or E
    casein kinase 2, CK2
    regulated by Cds1 kinase (hCds1/Chk2)
  • nuclear cell cycle regulated phosphoprotein of breast epithelium
  • phosphorylated by ATM protein kinase in response to ionizing radiation induced DNA damage,regulating the expression of GADD45s and CDLN1A
  • potentiated by binding JUNB to one of the transactivation domain of BRCA1
  • CAV1 enhances BRCA1 protein and mRNA levels
  • regulated by UBXN1 (regulates the enzymatic function of BRCA1 in a manner that is dependent on its ubiquitination status)
    hypoxia is a driving force for long-term silencing of BRCA1, thereby promoting genome instability and tumor progression
    regulated by Cds1 kinase (hCds1/Chk2)
    methylated by PRMT1
    negatively regulated by SUMO1
    Ubiquitinated and downregulated by ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T
    corresponding disease(s) BRCA1 , FANCS
    related resource Breastcancer
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    or loss of function in breast, ovarian carcinomas (sporadic or not)
    tumoral germinal mutation      
    increased risk of Prostate carcinoma in men
    constitutional     --over  
    in proliferative cells
    tumoral germinal mutation     loss of function
    in patients with primary ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancers
    tumoral       loss of function
    BRCA1 loss activates CTSL1-mediated degradation of TP53BP1
    tumoral       loss of function
    loss of BRCA1 following HSP90AA1 inhibition is a key upstream event leading to defective DSB repair, failure of G2/M checkpoint activation, and potentiation to DNA damaging agents
    Susceptibility to breast cancer
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    clinically relevant target for enhancing sensitivity in refractory and/or resistant malignancies
    MIR155 is a potential therapeutic target for BRCA1-deficient tumors
    Treatment of Brca1/p53-deficient mice with the progesterone antagonist mifepristone (RU 486) prevented mammary tumorigenesis
    is a clinically relevant target for enhancing sensitivity in refractory and/or resistant malignancies
  • mice homozygous for the mutant BRCA1 allele died in utero between 10 and 13 days of gestation due to abnormalities in the neural tube, spina bifida and anencephaly
  • Brca1+/- mice are normal and fertile and lack tumors by age eleven months, while Brca1-/- mice die before day 7.5 of embryogenesis due to a failure of the proliferative burst
  • Brca1-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells have impaired repair of chromosomal DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination
  • impact of the Brca1 or Brca2 null mutation is less severe in a p53 null background
  • mice deficient in the Brca1 exon 11 isoform (Brca1Delta11/Delta11) died late in gestation because of widespread apoptosis
  • most female Brca1Delta11/Delta11 Trp53+/- mice develop mammary tumors with loss of the remaining Trp53 allele within 6-12 months
  • Brca1(Delta11/Delta11)Gadd45a(-/-) embryos at embryonic days 9.5-10.5 were exencephalic and exhibited a high incidence of apoptosis accompanied by altered levels of BAX, BCL-2, and p53