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Symbol NPPA contributors: mct/npt - updated : 12-01-2016
HGNC name natriuretic peptide precursor A
HGNC id 7939
Corresponding disease
ATFB6 atrial fibrillation, familial, 6
ATRST2 atrial standstill 2
Location 1p36.22      Physical location : 11.905.768 - 11.907.840
Synonym name
  • pronatriodilatin, cardionatrin
  • atropeptin/atrionatruretic factor
  • atrial natriuretic peptide
  • Synonym symbol(s) ANP, PND, ANF, CDD-ANF, ATFB6, ATRST2
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 2.06 kb     3 Exon(s)
    Genomic sequence alignment details
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    text structure promoter serving as target of cardiac-specific and stress-dependent gene regulation (TBX5, TAZ, YY1AP1)
    MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Physical map
    TARDBP 1p36.22 TAR DNA binding protein AF311304 1p36.22 hypothetical protein AF311304 MASP2 1p36.3-p36.2 mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 SRM 1p36-p22 spermidine synthase PMSCL2 1p36.22 polymyositis/scleroderma autoantigen 2, 100kDa FRAP1 1p36.3-p36.2 FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1 CDT6 1p36.3-p36.2 angiopoietin-like factor TERE1 1p36 angiopoietin-like factor KIAA1337 1p36.21 KIAA1337 protein FBXO2 1p36.21 F-box only protein 2 FBX30 1p36.21 F-box protein FBX30 FBXO6 1p36.23-p36.11 F-box only protein 6 MAD2L2 1p36 MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 2 (yeast) LOC374946 1p36.21 hypothetical gene supported by AK075558; BC021286 AGTRAP 1p36.21 angiotensin II receptor-associated protein DKFZp434E1410 1p36.21 hypothetical protein DKFZp434E1410 MTHFR 1p36.3 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) CLCN6 1p36.2 chloride channel 6 NPPA 1p36.2 natriuretic peptide precursor A NPPB 1p36.2 natriuretic peptide precursor B LOC390997 1 similar to SET binding factor 1 isoform a; myotubularin-related protein 5 MGC33867 1p36.21 hypothetical protein MGC33867 PLOD 1p36.31 procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase (lysine hydroxylase, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI) MFN2 1p36.21 mitofusin 2 FLJ12438 1p36.21 hypothetical protein FLJ12438 TNFRSF8 1p36 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8 TNFRSF1B 1p36.32 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1B LOC390998 1 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L10 (QM protein) (Tumor suppressor QM) (Laminin receptor homolog) FLJ10619 DHRS3 1p36.1 dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 3 LOC343066 1p36.21 similar to Arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC)
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 858 - 101 - 2015 25260157
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheartatrium  highly Homo sapiens
    Digestivesalivary glandparotid  highly Homo sapiensAdult
     salivary glandparotid  highly Homo sapiensFetal
    Nervousbrain   moderately
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularstriatumcardiac highly Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularmyocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo
  • in the trabecular layer of the left ventricle and weakly expressed in the atrium and the trabecular layer of the right ventricle
  • in pre-implantation embryos and in self-renewing sembryonic stem cells
  • a signal sequence
  • conserved 17-AAs disulfide-linked ring structure that is required for biological activity (Dickey 2009)
  • a region of homology to the porcine vasoactive peptide cardiodilatin and the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the C terminal region
  • isoforms Precursor
  • natriuretic peptide family
  • CATEGORY regulatory
    basic FUNCTION
  • directly influencing blood pressure, body fluid homeostasis and kidney function
  • regulates sodium and water balance, blood pressure and myocardial mass through direct effects on the kidney, vasculature and heart and is involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and heart failure
  • NPPB, NPPA, NPPC activate guanylyl cyclase suggesting a potential role in maintaining lens epithelial cell homeostasis (PMID;
  • regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation
  • regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK
  • enhances mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased oxygen consumption and induction of key mitochondrial genes
  • regulates lipid catabolism and enhances energy dissipation through AMPK activation in adipocytes
  • new function of corin and NPPA in promoting trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling
  • profoundly inhibits evoked release of glutamate from the axonal terminals of medial habenula (MHb) to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) neurons
  • blocks neurotransmission by depleting presynaptic cAMP concentrations
  • might play a role in the differentiation of the parotid gland similarly as in brain and during fetal growth NPPA may play a role in the regulating the secretion of primitive salivary fluid, even if acini are still not developed
  • concerted action of NPPA and DRD1 to regulate sodium homeostasis in nephrotic syndrome
  • protective mechanism of NPPA against pathologic vascular hyperpermeability, suggesting a novel pharmacological intervention for the prevention of increased vascular leak via PAK1-dependent modulation of ARHGEF2 activity
  • early and specific marker for functional myocardium of the embryonic heart
  • importance of the endogenous NPPA/NPPB-NPR1 system not only in the neovascularization of ischemic tissues but also in embryonic vascular development and organ morphogenesis
  • importance of KLF10 and NPPA/NPR1 in exerting influences on chronic pulmonary disease pathogenesis
  • enhances endothelial barrier function by reducing RHOA activity and reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
    small molecule
  • selective activation of the PRKAA2 by NPPA is essential for NPPA mediated lipolysis in adipocytes and has several important potential implications which are relevant to the role of NPPA in exercise, heart failure and obesity and insulin resistance
  • NKX2-5 and its responsive cis-regulatory DNA elements are essential for NPPA expression selectively in the developing heart
  • PDE2A plays an essential role in the NPPA effect on synaptic transmission
  • in the developing mammalian ventricles NPPA plays a local paracrine role in regulating the balance between cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) proliferation and differentiation via NPR1/cGMP-mediated signaling pathways
  • via its receptor, NPR1, NPPA maintains cardiovascular homeostasis by exerting diuretic, natriuretic, and hypotensive effects mediated, in part, by endothelial cells
  • CCM2 and PAK4 are important downstream mediators of NPPA/NPR1 signaling involved in cell spreading, an important initial step in the enhancement of endothelial barrier function
  • cell & other
    induced by CAMTA1, which induces the expression of the anti-proliferative cardiac hormone natriuretic peptide A (NPPA)
    corresponding disease(s) ATFB6 , ATRST2
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in congestive heart failure
  • to nephropathy and microvascular damage in type 1 diabetes
  • to blood pressure variation
  • development of ischemic stroke
  • to cardioembolic stroke
  • Variant & Polymorphism other
  • polymorphism 2238C affect the course of nephropathy in inadequately controlled type 1 diabetic patients
  • common genetic variants at the NPPA-NPPB locus found to be associated with circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations contribute to interindividual variation in blood pressure and hypertension (Newton-Cheh 2009)
  • association between frequent nonsynonymous variant of NPPA and cardioembolic stroke
  • NPPA genetic polymorphism and serum NPPA levels may contribute to the development of ischemic stroke
  • Candidate gene
  • NPPA genetic polymorphism and serum NPPA levels could be potential biomarkers for early detection of ischemic stroke
  • marker of heart failure in children with left ventricular volume overload
  • Therapy target
  • pregnant corin- or Nppa-deficient mice developed high blood pressure and proteinuria, characteristics of pre-eclampsia