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Symbol YY1 contributors: mct - updated : 10-04-2016
HGNC name YY1 transcription factor
HGNC id 12856
Corresponding disease
MRFFE mental retardation, facial dysmorphy, feeding problems, eye abnormalities
Location 14q32.2      Physical location : 100.705.101 - 100.744.804
Synonym name
  • Yin-Yang 1 protein
  • delta transcription factor
  • transcriptional repressor protein YY1
  • INO80 complex subunit S
  • Synonym symbol(s) DELTA, NFE1, UCRBP, NF-E1, YIN-YANG-1, INO80S
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 39.70 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site
    text structure
  • multiples SP1 binding sites
  • E2F1 binding site
  • binds Sp1 and prevents its occupancy of a distinct element in the CDKN1A promoter without YY1 itself binding the promoter
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 2592 44 414 - 1994 7912122
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea   Homo sapiens
    Nervousbrainlimbic systemhippocampus   Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Hearing / Equilibriumhair cell receptor Homo sapiens
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • modulating domains at the N-terminus displaying repression, activation, and protein-protein interaction activities
  • zinc finger motif
  • HXPR motif
  • PHO homology region (PHR)
  • a trio of YY1-binding sites serves as nucleation center for XIST binding to XI
  • a DNA binding domain at the C-terminus
    interspecies homolog to rattus Yy1 (98,78 pc)
    homolog to murine Yy1 (99,51 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to YY2
  • GLI-Krüppel class of zinc finger proteins family
  • YY transcription factor family
  • CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • associate with a nuclear matrix
  • basic FUNCTION
  • can regulate transcription by affecting histone acetylation and chromatin condensation
  • repressor/activator (Yin Yang) protein
  • recruiting HDAC2 or HDAC3 for negative regulation of transcription
  • playing a role in calcineurin-dependent regulation of CXCR4 expression
  • exert both positive and negative regulatory influences on nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins
  • stimulating the Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)
  • inhibiting Ig-kappa light and heavy chain gene transcription
  • accelerating the binding of small nuclear RNA activating protein complex to the proximal sequence element
  • enhancing the formation of a complex on the pol III U6 snRNA promoter containing all the factor TBP
  • repressing Hoxa11-dependant transcription
  • playing a a potential role in genomic imprinting (may function as a controlling factor for the PEG3 and GNAS imprinted domains and may be involved in maintaining the proper methylation status of these differentially methylated, imprinting control regions)
  • coordinates multiple essential biological processes through a complex transcriptional network
  • trancriptional regulator of TP73 through cooperation with E2F1
  • factor that participates in transcription complexes formed on both pol II and III promoters
  • regulator of fetal troponin I gene transcription in the heart
  • ubiquitous zinc finger transcription factor which can function as an activator or repressor of gene expression depending on the gene and cellular context and controls transcription of many mitochondrial genes including the most ubiquitously expressed subunits of cytochrome c oxidase
  • regulates the expression of many neural-specific genes, and the master regulator (repressor) of neuronal development REST in a manner strikingly similar to GDAP1
  • having an important function in IgH locus contraction, a process indispensable for distal V(H) to D(H)J(H) recombination
  • critical regulator of early B-cell development
  • playing a role as both an inducer of TP53 instability in smooth muscle cells, and an indirect repressor of CDKN1A transcription,CDKN1A-CDK4-CCNDD1 assembly and intimal thickening
  • uses the INO80 complex not only to activate transcription but also to gain access to target promoters
  • regulating the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor
  • is a key regulator of BRCA1 expression and may be causally linked to the molecular etiology of human breast cancer
  • “bivalent” protein, capable of binding both RNA and DNA through different sequence motifs
  • acts as adaptor between regulatory RNA and chromatin targets
  • crucial for XIST localization during initiation, establishment, and maintenance of XCI
  • GLI-Krüppel zinc finger factor that regulates a variety of processes including transcription, proliferation, development and differentiation
  • can negatively regulate the growth of multiple malignant cell types
  • is a critical transcription factor mediating Th2 cytokine locus regulation in cooperation with GATA3
  • may initiate chromatin remodeling by recruiting coactivators to be accessible for GATA3 binding or it may provide a platform in a nuclear matrix for GATA3 binding
  • acts both as a repressor and as an activator of gene expression
  • YY1 is a transcription factor that acts as a repressor or an activator to modulate several cancer-associated cellular processe
  • both YY1 and XAF1 have key roles in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and are associated with worse clinical outcomes
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    nucleotide, repair
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    text stimulating
    a component
  • belongs to the multi-protein D4Z4 recognition complex (DRC), which binds genomic repeats, leading to the formation of a chromatin structure that regulates the expression of some genes located upstream of D4Z4, including SLC25A4 and FSHD Region Gene 2 (FRG2)
  • assembled BAP1/HCFC1/YY1 complex acts to induce the activation of COX7C or other target genes
    DNA found on RNA pol IIU1 and RNA pol III U6 promoters
    small molecule
  • HMGB2 and NCL (to mediate transcriptional derepression of FSHD gene resulting in disease)
  • MYC
  • binding to a variety of transcriptor factors
  • recruiting HDAC2, HDAC3
  • two HXPR motif-containing proteins REST and YY1 indeed were able to bind TFCP2
  • interacting with REST (YY1 directly regulates expression of the REST gene)
  • interacting with several Abd-B-type Hox proteins
  • Hoxa11 via direct physical interaction
  • negatively regulates FAS transcription
  • associated with the ATP-dependent INO80-like chromatin-remodeling complex (INO80), to activate transcription
  • cooperating with E2F1
  • a potential MMP9 gene repressor in neurons
  • physically interacting with androgen receptor (Deng 2009)
  • interacting with GDAP1 (YY1 acts to induce GDAP1 gene expression, decreasing YY1 levels should repress it)
  • physically interacts with SUZ12 and can act as a mediator to recruit the polycomb group proteins and DNA methyltransferases to participate in the CEBPD gene silencing process
  • binds and cooperates to positive regulation of the PRDM2 promoter (coexpression of PRDM2/YY1 proteins suggests a tandem regulatory mechanism in human osteosarcoma cells and tissues)
  • interacts with MECP2
  • transcriptional repressor, YY1, negatively regulated the expression of CNMD by recruiting histone deacetylase and thus inducing the deacetylation of associated histones
  • interacting with BAP1 (BAP1 might be recruited by YY1 to regulate gene expression)
  • emerges as an important activator of peripheral myelination that links neuregulin signaling with EGR2 expression
  • YY1 binds MYO7A promoter sequence, making YY1 a strong candidate to regulate MYO7A expression in the cochlea
  • binds to the promoter of BRCA1, and its overexpression resulted in increased expression of BRCA1 and a number of BRCA1 downstream genes
  • YY1 interacts with XIST RNA through Repeat C
  • ability of POSTN promoter to drive transcription mostly depends on the activity of YY1 zinc finger transcription factor
  • key transcriptional activator regulating vimentin expression and CpG methylation is sufficient to prevent the binding of YY1 to the vimentin promoter
  • YY1 inhibited CDKN1A complex formation with CDK4 and CCND1
  • YY1 cooperates with MITF in regulating the expression of piebaldism gene KIT and multiple additional pigmentation genes
  • HCFC1 directly associates with YY1, and through the interaction of YY1 with MECP2, it regulates mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase SLC25A4 and thus might contribute to the pathology of Rett syndrome
  • cooperates with GATA3 and is required for regulation of the Th2 cytokine locus and Th2 cell differentiation
  • YY1 is capable of directly binding to the BIRC5 promoter
  • YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression
  • BTG2 is a key player in hepatic hepcidin (HAMP) regulation via induction of Yin Yang 1 (YY1)
  • YY1 is able to mediate XAF1 silencing
  • cell & other
  • tethers XIST RNA to the nucleation center
    repressed by PHB on the YY1 promoter mediated through E2F binding sites
    corresponding disease(s) MRFFE
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in osteosarcoma cells plays a key role in positive regulation of PRDM2
    tumoral fusion      
    with EWSR1 genes in mesothelioma with t(14;22)(q32;q12)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    specific ablation of YY1 in mouse B cells caused a defect in somatic rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus and a block in the progenitor-B-to-precursor-B-cell transition, which was partially rescued by a prerearranged IgH transgene