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FLASH GENE
Symbol PROK2 contributors: mct - updated : 18-11-2014
HGNC name prokineticin 2
HGNC id 18455
Corresponding disease
KAL4 Kallmann syndrome 4
Location 3p13      Physical location : 71.820.806 - 71.834.357
Synonym name homolog of mouse BV8 (bombina variegata 8 Kda), prokineticin 2 precursor
Synonym symbol(s) PK2, BV8, KAL4, MIT1, HH4, KAL4
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 13.55 kb     4 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Physical map
LOC375350 3p14.3 COP9 pseudogene LOC151645 3p14.3 protease (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 1 pseudogene FLJ25161 3p14.3-p14.2 hypothetical protein FLJ25161 LOC152122 3p14.2 hypothetical LOC152122 MGC34132 3p14.2 hypothetical protein MGC34132 TMF1 3p21-p12 TATA element modulatory factor 1 UBE1C 3p24.3-p13 ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1C (UBA3 homolog, yeast) JWA 3p14 ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1C (UBA3 homolog, yeast) LMOD3 3p14.1 leiomodin 3 (fetal) GRSP1 3p14.2 leiomodin 3 (fetal) MITF 3p14.1-p12.3 microphthalmia-associated transcription factor LOC391543 3 similar to KIAA1839 protein FOXP1 3p14.1 forkhead box P1 LOC391544 3 similar to MGC39820 protein GPR27 3p21-p14 G protein-coupled receptor 27 PROK2 3p21.1 prokineticin 2 RYBP 3p13 RING1 and YY1 binding protein LOC339875 3p14.2 hypothetical LOC339875 FLJ10539 3p14.2 hypothetical protein FLJ10539 LOC317753 3p14 proteasome 26S non-ATPase subunit 12 pseudogene LOC389129 3 similar to CG9996-PA PPP4R2 3q28 protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 2 FLJ10213 3p14.1 hypothetical protein FLJ10213 LOC344709 3p14.1 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ38348 SEMACAP3 3p13 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ38348 LOC391546 3 similar to Heat shock protein HSP 90-beta (HSP 84) (HSP 90) ALDRP 3p12 aldehyde reductase (aldose reductase) pseudogene CNTN3 3p26 contactin 3 (plasmacytoma associated) LOC344715 3p14.1 similar to long myosin light chain kinase LOC344716 3p14.1 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor LOC391548 3 similar to olfactory receptor GA_x6K02T2PVTD-14054886-14053957 LOC339879 3p14.1 similar to mannosyltransferase LOC389130 3 similar to Alkaline sphingomyelinase LOC389131 3 LOC389131 LOC391549 3 similar to chromosome 11 open reading frame2; chromosome  11 open reading frame2
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
4 - 1613 14.3 129 lower in brain, undetectable in kidney, and much higher in lung and spleen 2005 15772293
PKL2 long form
3 splicing 1550 8 108 - 2005 15772293
EXPRESSION
Type
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularvessel   highly
Nervousbraindiencephalonhypothalamussuprachiasmatic nuclei 
 nervecranial nerve  predominantly
 spinal cord    
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow  moderately
Nervouscentral   
Nervousperipherous   
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • an N-terminal hexapeptide sequence (AVITGA)
  • cysteine rich domains forming disulfide bounds, 10 conserved cysteine residues within the 81 AA in its mature form
  • isoforms Precursor a 27 aa signal peptide of 2.9 kda and a 81 aa mature peptide
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to rattus Prok2 (95.1 pc)
    homolog to murine Prok2 (94.1 pc)
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • endogenous neurotrophic factor supporting neuronal survival through the activation of the MAPK/PI3K pathways
  • transmetting the behavioral circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by functioning as an output molecule from the SCN
  • functioning as a chemoattractant for SVZ-derived neuronal progenitors
  • may also act as a detachment signal for chain-migrating progenitors arriving from the rostral migratory stream
  • potently contracting gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle
  • modulating mobilization of haematopoietic cell mobilization from the bone marrow during tumour development
  • promoting angiogenesis
  • can be activated by pathological stimuli such as hypoxia-ischemia and excitotoxic glutamate and is a deleterious mediator for cerebral ischemia
  • potentiates the activity of acid-sensing ion channels in the primary sensory neurons
  • is a proalgesic factor and its signaling likely contributes to acidosis-evoked pain by sensitizing acid-sensing ion channels
  • PROK2 increases the activity of acid-sensing ion channels via the PROKR2 and protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways
  • is a regulator in the thermoregulation and energy expenditure
  • PROK2 may likely transmit circadian timing information to some neurobehavioral neural networks
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS circadian , development
    text
  • rhytmically expressed in the SCN
  • neurogenesis
  • PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component complex PROC2/PROCR2 plays a role in GNRH1 neuron development beyond olfactory bulb morphogenesis
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • PROK2-induced the formation of vessel-like structures by aortic endothelial cells expressing only PROKR1, and disorganized the tight junctions in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells expressing only PROKR2, confirming the divergent roles of these receptors
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by CLOCK and BMAL1 heterodimers and light
    induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
    inhibited by period genes (PER1, PER2 and PER3) and cryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2)
    Other controlled by circadian clock
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) KAL4
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS