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FLASH GENE
Symbol PRKCB contributors: mct - updated : 07-03-2012
HGNC name protein kinase C, beta 1
HGNC id 9395
Location 16p12.2      Physical location : 23.847.299 - 24.231.930
Synonym symbol(s) PKCB, PRKCB2, PKC-beta, PRKCB1
EC.number 2.7.1.37/ 2.7.11.13
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 384.63 kb     18 Exon(s)
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
text two isoforms beta1 and beta2
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
17 splicing 2711 76 671 - 2004 15037605
  • PKCBI
  • using an alternate exon at the 3' end compared to variant 2, which includes a part of the coding region
  • 17 exons, the last exon is different from variant 2
  • translocated from the cytosol to the particulate membrane after plating on poly-l-lysine (this translocation was inhibited by the addition of an antioxidant) (DelCarlo)
  • 17 splicing 8014 76 673 - 2004 15037605
  • PKCBII
  • 17 exons, the last exon is different from variant 1
  • translocated to a novel juxtanuclear compartment as observed in several cell types
  • autoregulation is mediated through a MEK-dependent signaling pathway in RIE/PKCbetaII and HCT116 colon cancer cells
  • increased in the myocardium of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF)
  • EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   predominantly
     spleen   highly
     thymus   highly
    Nervousbrain   moderately
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    Lymphoid    
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticneutrophil
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion blood
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a C2 domain including a phosphatidine binding site
  • a catalytic domain
  • two phorbol-ester/DAG-type
  • an ATP binding site
  • a proton acceptor site
  • conjugated PhosphoP , Other
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to rattus Prkcb1
    ortholog to murine Prkcb1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • Ser/Thr kinase superfamily
  • PKC family, class I
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,nucleus
    text translocating to cytoplasm after autophosphorylation
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption and may also regulate neuronal functions
  • acting as a calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent, serine- and threonine-specific enzyme
  • serving as the receptor for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters
  • playing critical roles in mediating progenitor to dendritic cells differentiation
  • plays a major role in TNF-alpha-induced human vascular endothelial cell apoptosis
  • regulates rod photoreceptor differentiation through modulation of STAT3 signaling
  • cell-signaling intermediate implicated in development of diabetic complications
  • promoting colon carcinogenesis (beta II)
  • playing a role in cytokinesis (function mediated by an interaction with pericentrin at centrosomes) (beta II)
  • PRKCA and PRKCB, are involved in most platelet responses implicated in thrombus formation
  • required for recruiting IKBKB into lipid rafts, up-regulating NF-KB-dependent survival signal
  • role for PRKCB as a negative regulator of SYK tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of GP6
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
  • may be considered as a novel component of the NF-kappa-B signaling axis responsible for the survival and activation of B cells after BCR cross-linking
  • PRKCB/ELAVL1 activation was accompanied by enhanced VEGFA protein expression in diabetic retinopathy
  • a component
  • acetylation
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding, nucleotide,
  • Ca2+ (3 ions per subunit, bound to the C2 domain)
  • ATP
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • NELL proteins (thrombospondin-1like)
  • phosphorylating p47 (phox)/NCF1 and activating NADPH oxidase
  • PDK1
  • PRKCA, PRKCB, stimulates collecting duct EDN1 synthesis via transcriptional activation of the EDN1 promoter (
  • is the isoform responsible for SYK negative regulation in human platelets
  • cell & other
  • phosphatidylserine
  • REGULATION
    activated by diacylglycerol which in turn phosphorylates a range of cellular proteins
    induced by EFHD2 (PRKCB1/PRKCH-inducible gene that modulates mast cell activation through NF-kappaB-dependent pathway
    Other positive autoregulation involves up-regulation of PKC-beta promoter activity by constitutive PKC signaling
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in the myocardium of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF)
    tumoral     --over  
    in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, stimulated by VEGFA
    Susceptibility
  • for diabetic nephropathy in type I diabetes mellitus
  • to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • rs16972959 increasing the risk of SLE
  • Candidate gene for autism
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    diabetetype 2 
    PRKCB/ELAVL1 with enhanced VEGFA protein expression is a new potential pharmacological target to counteract pathologies implicating VEGF deregulation, such as diabetic retinopathy
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS