Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
FLASH GENE
Symbol PLK1 contributors: mct - updated : 04-12-2010
HGNC name polo-like kinase 1 (Drosophila)
HGNC id 9077
Location 16p12.2      Physical location : 23.690.200 - 23.701.688
Synonym name
  • cell cycle regulated protein kinase
  • serine/threonine-protein kinase 13
  • polo-like kinase (Drosophila)
  • Synonym symbol(s) PLK, STPK13, PLK-1, MGC26269, MGC5363
    EC.number 2.7.11.21
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 11.49 kb     10 Exon(s)
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor
    text structure
  • TP53 and P21 are negative regulators of PLK1 transcription
  • RB proteins repress PLK1 transcription
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    10 - 2204 68 603 - 2009 19400994
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver   highly
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   highly
    Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix highly
    Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    cell cycle     cell cycle, checkpoint, G2M
    Text placenta
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • N-terminal catalytic and kinase domain
  • zinc finger protein, Krüppel related
  • an autoregulator non catalytic C terminal region
  • two POLO-box domains (PBDs), recognizing similar phosphoserine/threonine motifs, associating with two different domains of MAVS, and which mediates protein interactions
  • C-terminal regulatory domain with two polo-box domains
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to rattus Plk1 (94. 20 pc)
    homolog to murine Plk1 (94.03 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to ERV3 related sequence Hplk (see TSG7C)
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule,centrosome
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule,mitotic spindle
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • at the centrosome during interphase
  • localize to the spindle midzone at anaphase I and telophase I
  • with PLEKHG6 colocalize at the spindle pole and central spindle during mitosis and cytokinesis
  • localizes to centrosomes and kinetochores in almost all stages of mitosis, and it also accumulates at the spindle midzone and the midbody at the onset of anaphase
  • PLK1 colocalizes with NPHP1 to the transition zone of primary cilia in epithelial cells
  • basic FUNCTION
  • may be promoting genome stability by regulating DNA replication under stressful conditions
  • plays several roles in mitosis, and has been suggested to have a role in tumorigenesis
  • involved in a variety of mitotic events, including G2/M transition, centrosome maturation and separation, mitotic spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis
  • required for cell cycle progression not only in mitosis but also for DNA synthesis, maintenance of DNA integrity, and prevention of cell death
  • potent regulator of M phase
  • modulates TOPORS activity in suppressing TP53 function and have a tumorigenic potential
  • regulator of IFN induction and provide the basis for the development of inhibitors preventing the PLK1/MAVS association to sustain innate immunity
  • ERCC6L and PLK1 kinase coordinately maintain chromosome architecture during prometaphase
  • with BIRC5 are important mediators of cell survival that are required for chromosome alignment, cytokinesis, and protection from apoptosis
  • involved in phosphorylation of DCTN1 which is essential for nuclear envelope breakdown during prophase
  • kinase that is responsible for M phase-specific phosphorylation of centrobin
  • enhances centrobin activity for proper spindle formation during mitosis
  • its phosphorylation is required for centrobin function in spindle assembly during mitosis
  • PLK1 phosphorylation of DCTN1 at least partially promotes its dissociation from microtubules at late G2 and the released DCTN1 would go to nuclear enveloppe to initiate nuclear envelope breakdown
  • required for completion of nuclear envelope breakdown at late prophase
  • mitotic kinase that plays an essential role in centrosome regulation and mitotic spindle assembly
  • involved in many cell-cycle-related events, such as bipolar spindle formation and sister chromatid segregation
  • phosphorylates CLIP1 at early mitosis and maximum CLIP1 phosphorylation by CSNK2A1 likely occurs at middle/late mitosis
  • mitotic kinase governing multiple events in mitosis, and is also localized to the kinetochores as well as the centrosome
  • novel regulator of KIF2C in mammalian cells
  • responsible of direct inhibition of the PDZ ligand underlying the GORASP1 self-interaction
  • plays a pivotal role during M-phase progression
  • recruits itself to centromeres by phosphorylating and binding to a centromere scaffold, MLF1IP
  • in G2 phase, can trigger centrosome separation independently of CDK1
  • role of KIF11, PLK1 and the NIMA-family kinases NEK7 and NEK9 in the control of centrosome separation and normal mitotic progression
  • regulates CDC25B-dependent mitosis entry
  • its activity is required for the nuclear translocation of CDC25B at the G2-M transition and for its subsequent activation
  • PLK1-mediated phosphorylation of RIOK2 regulates metaphase-anaphase transition during mitotic progression
  • potential novel role of PLK1 in facilitating DNA replication under conditions of stress to maintain genomic integrity
  • critical for the initiation of centrosome maturation
  • phosphorylates the essential RAD51 recombinase at serine 14 (S14) during the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage
  • role in linking DNA damage recognition with HR repair and suggest a molecular mechanism for cancer development associated with elevated activity of PLK1
  • is a novel transition zone signaling protein, suggesting a function of PLK1 in cilia dynamics
  • phosphorylates SUGT1 at the kinetochores to promote timely kinetochore-microtubule attachment
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • PLK1 forms a ternary complex with MLF1IP and CENPQ
  • ERCC6L-PLK1 complex plays a critical role in maintaining prometaphase chromosome architecture
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • interacting directly with ERCC6L (recruits PLK1 to chromosome arms and disruption of this interaction abolishes PLK1 localization on chromosome arms)
  • KIF2A is regulated positively by PLK1 and negatively by Aurora A
  • SEPT9 is a putative binding partner of PLK1, which has been shown to act as a regulator of cytokinesis
  • binds and directly phosphorylates the RACGAP subunit of centralspindlin (also known as RACGAP1) at the midzone
  • PLK1 associates with TUBG1 in mitosis and PLK1 activity contributes to phosphorylation of TUBG1
  • DCTN1 interacts with PLK1 through its C-terminal polo-box domain, which was proposed as the motif for association with its substrates
  • interacting with BIRC5 during mitosis and PLK1 phosphorylates survivin at serine 20, which is essential for accurate chromosome alignment and cell proliferation but is dispensable for its anti-apoptotic activity in cancer cells
  • MAP9 and PLK1 co-localize and interact at spindle poles during mitosis and this interaction requires specifically the PBD of PLK1
  • CLIP1 is a potential PLK1 target (interacts with PLK1 through its N-terminus)
  • PLK1 binds the GORASP1 C-terminal domain under mitotic conditions
  • PLK1 activity negatively regulates CEP55 to ensure orderly abscission factor recruitment and ensures that this occurs only once cell contraction has completed
  • interacts with the MLF1IP-CENPQ complex and regulates its dissociation from mitotic kinetochores
  • RNF8 is downregulated in many cancer cells and inversely correlated with PLK1
  • PLK1 controls the NEK2-PPP1CC antagonism in centrosome disjunction
  • one of ATXN10 binding partners
  • RIOK2 interacts with the N-terminal domain of PLK1
  • ORC2 is a PLK1 substrate and PLK1 phosphorylates ORC2 at Ser188
  • CEP55 associates with and is phosphorylated by PLK1 during mitosis (tight regulation of CEP55 protein levels by TP53 is mediated by PLK1 phosphorylation)
  • PLK1-mediated phosphorylation of pericentriolar matrix initiates centrosome maturation by organizing the spindle pole-specific PCM lattice
  • TEX14 is recruited to kinetochores (KTs) by PLK1 in a CDK1-dependent manner during early mitosis
  • negatively regulates PRC1 to prevent premature midzone formation before cytokinesis (PMIDF:
  • SUGT1, a cochaperone for HSP90AA1, 1s a novel PLK1 substrate during mitosis
  • PLK1 and BUB1B cooperate to stabilize kinetochore-microtubule interactions by regulating PP2A-B56alpha-mediated dephosphorylation of AURKB substrates at the kinetochore-microtubule interface
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue (Thr 210) in the T-loop of the PLK1 kinase domain
    AURKA (initial activation of PLK1 is a primary function of aurora A)
    repressed by hamartin
    Other regulated by the POLO-box domain implicated in phospho-dependent substrate targeting necessary for proper mitotic progression
    inactivated in response to DNA damage
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in primary colorectal cancers and associated with p53 accumulation
    tumoral     --over  
    in infantile hepatoblastomas with poorer outcome
    tumoral       gain of function
    in esophageal cancer
    tumoral     --over  
    in bladder cancer (confers tumor progression advantages to urothelial cancer cells, although other factors are also involved)
    constitutional        
    induces DNA instability, which may be mediated by the accumulation of FBXO5, an inhibitor of APC/C, and geminin, an inhibitor of pre-prereplicative complex formation
    constitutional        
    increase MAVS activity, while its overexpression inhibited MAVS
    tumoral     --over  
    associated with shortened event-free survival and was an independent prognostic factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma
    tumoral     --over  
    of PLK1 and KIF2C activities seen in cancer cells may account for a mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of genomic instability
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerdigestiveliver
    with TP63, may be a candidate as a molecuar target of liver tumor treatments
    cancerhemopathy 
    new therapeutic target for non-Hodgkin lymphoma
    cancer  
    attractive target for the development of anticancer agents due to its importance in regulating cell-cycle progression
    cancerdigestive 
    for therapeutic of hepatoblastoma, and esophageal cancer
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS