Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
FLASH GENE
Symbol PAEP contributors: mct - updated : 25-06-2014
HGNC name progestagen-associated endometrial protein (placental protein 14, pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-2-globulin, alpha uterine protein)
HGNC id 8573
Location 9q34.3      Physical location : 138.453.603 - 138.458.622
Genatlas name glycodelin, placental protein 14, immunocalin
Synonym name
  • placental protein 14, pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-2-globulin, alpha uterine protein
  • glycodelin
  • glycodelin-A
  • Synonym symbol(s) PP14, PEP, GD, GdA, GdF, GdS, MGC138509, MGC142288, PAEG
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE arranged in tandem
    STRUCTURE 5.02 kb     7 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    motif
    MAPPING cloned Y linked   status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC389804 9 LOC389804 LOC392397 9 similar to hypothetical protein FCN2 9q34 ficolin (collagen/fibrinogen domain containing lectin) 2 (hucolin) FCN1 9q34 ficolin (collagen/fibrinogen domain containing) 1 OLFM1 9q34.3 olfactomedin 1 LOC392398 9 similar to ligand-independent activating molecule for estrogen receptor C9orf62 9q34.3 chromosome 9 open reading frame 62 KIAA0649 9q34.3 chromosome 9 open reading frame 62 MGC29761 9q34.3 hypothetical protein MGC29761 MRPS2 9q34 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S2 LCN1 9q34 lipocalin 1 (protein migrating faster than albumin, tear prealbumin) OBP2A 9q34 lipocalin 1 (protein migrating faster than albumin, tear prealbumin) PAEP 9q34.2-q34.3 progestagen-associated endometrial protein (placental protein 14, pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha-2-globulin, alpha uterine protein) LOC138159 9q34.3 beta-lactoglobulin pseudogene GLTDC1 9q34.3 galactosyltransferase family 6 domain containing 1 LOC392399 9 similar to Putative MUP-like lipocalin precursor LOC286220 9q34.3 hypothetical protein LOC286220 KCNT1 9q34.3 potassium channel, subfamily T, member 1 CAMSAP1 9q34.3 calmodulin regulated spectrin-associated protein 1 LOC389805 9 similar to 9530003A05 protein GBDR1 9q34.1-q34.3 similar to 9530003A05 protein BTBD14A 9q34.3 BTB (POZ) domain containing 14A LOC392400 9 similar to F4N2.10 LOC389806 9 hypothetical gene supported by BC009060 LOC389807 9 LOC389807 LOC389808 9 LOC389808
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 857 - 180 - Richter
    7 - 828 - 180 - Richter
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart    
     vesselscapillary   
    Reproductivefemale systemuterus    Homo sapiens
     female systemplacenta   
     female systemovary   
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Epithelialbarrier/liningendometrium   Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductiveepithelial cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage hematopoietic cells of the megakaryocytic lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion ammiotic fluid and uterine luminal fluid, present at high concentration
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text decidua
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Hydrophobic
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel which encloses an internal ligand binding site
  • three potential N-glycosylation sites namely Asn-28, Asn-63 and Asn-85 of which the first two are glycosylated
  • conjugated GlycoP
    mono polymer homomer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Paep
    Homologene
    FAMILY lipocalin family, Kernel group
    CATEGORY immunity/defense , secretory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • progestagen-associated endometrial protein, secreted in the endometrium from mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during the first trimester of pregnancy
  • demonstrating potential immunosuppresive properties
  • having immunomodulatory activity, implicated in the protection of the fetus from the maternal immune attack (inhibit the proliferation of T and B-cells and the activity of NK cells)
  • progesterone regulated lipocalin
  • may act as an autocrine factor within endometriotic implants to increase VEGF expression during oxidative stress
  • acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer
  • contributes to the cytokine shift in early pregnancy
  • protective role during pregnancy by regulating the cytolytic activity of CD8(+) T cells
  • role of in supporting immune tolerance in pregnancy by reducing T cell effector functions along with augmenting Treg differentiation
  • lipocalin with an immunomodulatory role
  • inhibits activation and proliferation, and induces apoptosis of T cells
  • role as a paracrine regulator in early pregnancy
  • involved in fetomaternal defense and early placental development through its regulatory activities in various immune cells
  • cell surface glycoprotein offering a unique gender specific carbohydrate configuration (PMID;
  • is the principal secretory phase product of endometrium and has been shown to inhibit cell immune function
  • may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • induction of FOXP3 expression by PAEP is accompanied by down regulation of the PI3K-MTOR signaling pathway
  • PAEP interacts with SELL to induce IL6 production in monocytes/macrophages by activating the ERK signaling pathway
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by by sialyl transferase and sialidase before secretion by the endometrium
    Other deglycosylation abolishes the binding and therefore the action of the glycodelins on spermatozoa
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    in human first trimester abortion and partially upregulated in mole pregnancy
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • independent prognostic marker for poor prognosis in advanced ovarian cancer patients
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS