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Symbol NINJ1 contributors: mct/npt/shn - updated : 03-07-2018
HGNC name ninjurin 1
HGNC id 7824
Location 9q22.31      Physical location : 95.883.771 - 95.896.570
Synonym name nerve injury-induced protein-1
Synonym symbol(s) NIN1, NINJURIN
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 12.82 kb     4 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Map cen - D9S1781 - D9S1841 - NINJ1 - D9S1803 - D9S197 - qter
Authors Blair (98)
Physical map
LOC347318 9q22.31 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L21 SPTLC1 9q22.1-q22.2 serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 LOC389772 9 similar to Osteotesticular phosphatase; protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, V LOC392368 9 similar to KIAA1553 protein LOC138652 9q22.32 similar to bA62C3.1 (similar to testicular serine protease) IARS 9q21 isoleucine-tRNA synthetase C9orf34 9q22.32 chromosome 9 open reading frame 34 OGN 9q22.3 osteoglycin (osteoinductive factor, mimecan) OMD 9p22.3 osteomodulin ASPN 9q22-q31 asporin (LRR class 1) ECM2 9q22.3 extracellular matrix protein 2, female organ and adipocyte specific C9orf12 9q21.33-q22.31 chromosome 9 open reading frame 12 BICD2 9q22.1-q22.3 chromosome 9 open reading frame 12 ANKRD19 9q22.32 ankyrin repeat domain 19 BA526D8.4 9q22.32 KRAB box containing C2H2 type zinc finger bA526D8.4 LOC389773 9 LOC389773 LOC340518 9q22.32 similar to Alox15 protein FGD3 9q22 FGD1 family, member 3 MGC26847 LOC389774 9 LOC389774 MGC11115 9q22.32 hypothetical protein MGC11115 LOC389775 9 LOC389775 NINJ1 9q22.3 ninjurin 1 PRKWNK2 9q22.3 protein kinase, lysine deficient 2 C9orf10OS 9q22.32 chromosome 9 open reading frame 10 opposite strand C9orf10 9q22.31 chromosome 9 open reading frame 10 PHF2 9q22.31 PHD finger protein 2 BARX1 9q12 BarH-like homeobox 1 PTP9Q22 9q22.32 protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP9Q22 HCP24 9q22.32 cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
4 - 1297 17 152 - 2017 28373430
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheart   highly
Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon highly
 intestinesmall intestine  highly
 liver   highly
Endocrinepancreas   highly
Lymphoid/Immunespleen   highly
 thymus   lowly
Nervousbrain     Homo sapiens
Reproductivefemale systemovary  highly
 female systemplacenta  moderately
 male systemprostate  highly
 male systemtestis  highly
Respiratorylung   moderately
Urinarykidney   lowly
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood / hematopoieticplasma  highly Homo sapiens
Nervouscentral    Homo sapiens
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood/Hematopoieticmonocyte Homo sapiens
cell lineage
cell lines
physiological period embryo
Text epithelial tissue
  • N-terminal (171 aa) ectodomain
  • two transmembrane domains (72100 aa and 111138 aa),
  • an intercellular region (101110 aa)
  • a domain for ninjurin-mediated homophilic adhesion
  • C-terminal (139152 aa) ectodomain
    interspecies ortholog to Ninj1, Mus musculus
    ortholog to Ninj1, Rattus norvegicus
    homolog to LOC100333346, Danio rerio
    ortholog to NINJ1, Pan troglodytes
  • Ninjurin family proteins
  • CATEGORY adhesion
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • promoting axonal growth
  • adhesion molecule involved in nerve regeneration in leprosy
  • may be involved in the regulation of cellular senescence in the liver during carcinogenesis
  • has an important role in vascular regression mediated by macrophages during early eye development and in vascular homeostasis (Lee et al, 2009)
  • important cell-specific role for NINJ1 in the transmigration of inflammatory antigen-presenting cells (APCs) across the BBB, suggesting the importance of myeloid cell recruitment during the development of neuroinflammatory lesions
  • adhesion molecule promoting leukocyte trafficking under inflammatory conditions
  • homophilic adhesion molecule and involved in nerve regeneration
  • enhances macrophage motility and consequent extravasation of immune cells through the regulation of protrusive membrane dynamics
  • is a novel regulator for the angiogenic effect of PCs (pericytes), and negatively regulates the formation of neovessels, that is, the endothelial cells-tube, by reducing the trophic effects of capillary pericytes (cPCs)
  • involved in macrophage migration and adhesion during inflammation
  • cell surface protein known as a homophilic adhesion molecule
  • adhesion molecule that not only contributes to inflammation but also regulates the apoptosis of endothelial cells
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development , nervous system
    a component
  • assembles into a homomeric protein complex and N-glycosylation is a prerequisite for NINJ1 homomer assembly
    small molecule
  • MMP9 cleaved NINJ1 in between Leu56 and Leu57 on its N-terminal ectodomain
  • as a membrane adhesion molecule, NINJ1 is an ideal target to regulate TP53 activity via the TP53-NINJ1 loop
  • regulates likely the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory response through its direct binding to LPS
  • NINJ1 is a target of TP53 and forms a feedback loop with TP53 by repressing TP53 mRNA translation
  • depending on TP53 genetic status, NINJ1 has two opposing functions in tumorigenesis and that the NINJ1-TP53 loop may be targeted to manage inflammatory diseases and cancer
  • cell & other
  • Ninj1-expressing macrophages closely interact with hyaloid vascular endothelial cells (Lee et al, 2009)
    induced by up-regulated after nerve injury both in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and in Schwann cells (Araki et al, 1997)
    Other temporally increased in macrophages during regression of hyaloid vascular system (Lee et al, 2009)
    transcriptionally regulated by TP53 and can be induced by DNA damage in a TP53-dependent manner
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in hepatocellular carcinoma
    tumoral     --over  
    in circulating prostate tumor cells
    Susceptibility to leprosy nerve damage
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP asp110ala single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with protection in leprosy nerve damage
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    diabetetype 1 
    potential therapeutic target for preventing endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus
    is a putative target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis