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Symbol IFNG contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 24-10-2016
HGNC name interferon, gamma
HGNC id 5438
Location 12q15      Physical location : 68.548.549 - 68.553.521
Synonym name
  • immune interferon
  • IFN-gamma
  • Synonym symbol(s) IFG, IFI, IFNG1
    TYPE virus associated
    STRUCTURE 4.97 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Binding site   enhancer
    text structure
  • IFNG and IL26 genes share a common distal enhancer element.
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 1986 - 325 - 1995 7587386
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   lowly
    Urinarykidney   lowly
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    cell lineage
    cell lines B cell lines
    fluid/secretion blood at a predominantly level
    at STAGE
    mono polymer homomer , dimer
    isoforms Precursor
  • type 2 (or gamma) interferon family
  • CATEGORY signaling cytokine
    text secreted
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in immunoregulation, negative regulator of T cell mediated osteoclastogenesis through cross talk with TNFSF11
  • involved in the control of endogenous tumor and infection, by upregulating MHC classes I,II, effecting IgG heavy chain switching and stimulating production of immunomodulatory cytokines, surveillance system
  • IFNG binds to an heterotetrameric receptor capable of activating the JAK-STAT pathway, in cooperation with BRCA1, leading to phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT1 dependent regulation of gene expression, also,STAT1 independent regulator of gene expression
  • inducing rapid degradation of TRAF6, resulting in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of TNFS11 (RANK2) induced activation of NFKB and INK
  • mediating DUOX2 expression in respiratory tract epithelium and thus is involved in the regulation of host defense responses
  • soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and potent activator of macrophages
  • extensively control iron distribution and availability by directly modulating the expression of a number of players in iron metabolism, including ferritin, the transferrin receptor, the iron exporter ferroportin
  • autocrine IFNG promotes naive CD8 T cell differentiation and synergizes with IFNA1 to stimulate strong function
  • IFNG production is likely essential for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) activation and hematopoietic responses to infection
  • antiproliferative effects on transformed cells
  • plays an essential role in the development and severity of systemic autoimmunity, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus
  • IFNG dependent signalling controlled trafficking through the choroid plexus, for CNS immune surveillance and repair
  • during the differentiation process NK cells gradually display increasing expression of IFNG and TBX21 (encoding T-bet) transcripts and demethylation at the IFNG promoter
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell communication
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense
    text cell migration motility
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
  • component of an heterotetrameric receptor
    small molecule
  • IFNG has two important effects on the expression levels of the CEA family molecules in colon epithelial cells: direct upregulation of CEACAM1 and promotion of cell differentiation resulting in increased expression of CEA and CEACAM6 and decreased expression of CEACAM7
  • interacting with SPP1 and IL27 (important IFNG–dependent self-regulatory process that serves to control immune system homeostasis through an SPP1/IL27 axis in dendritic cells)
  • IFNG appears to act largely through a transcriptional mechanism on the FXN gene
  • TWIST1 regulation of IFNG depends on complex formation with RUNX3
  • IFNG- induced soluble and membrane-bound TNFSF13B production in a dose- and time-dependent manner
  • IFNG induces TNFSF13 expression in human intestinal epithelial cells through JAK/STAT signaling pathways that might activate the GAST and IRF1-binding element in the TNFSF13B promoter
  • induces IL33 in keratinocytes and IL33 acts on activated T cells to further increase the release of IFNG, therefore contributing to drive skin inflammation towards chronic responses
  • IRF1 mediates IFNG-induced optineurin promoter activation
  • PRDM1-dependent recruitment of TLE4 to the IFNG locus causes epigenetic silencing of the expression of the IFNG gene in anergic TH1 cells
  • inhibits IFNG -induced biological responses, and IFNG is a new molecular target of NR1H3
  • GBP1 is a downstream processor of IFNG via which T cells regulate cytoskeleton-dependent cell functions 8)
  • directly controls IL33 protein level through a STAT1- and PSMB9-dependent mechanism
  • NK cell activation and secretion of IFNG1 results in activation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT1 in tumor cells, resulting in rapid up-regulation of CD274 expression
  • ADAM17-mediated degradation of IFNG may block the anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of IFNG
  • cell & other
    Other autoregulating its translation through activation of PRKR
    produced by lmyphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens
    corresponding disease(s)
  • possible susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and susceptibility to angiomyolipoma in TSC2
  • to pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Variant & Polymorphism other
  • allele 2 protecting against angiomyolipoma
  • variation in IFNG is associated with the risk of aplastic anemia
  • the haplotype rs2234711T-rs3799488C contributed to a significant increase in the risk of tuberculosis
  • Candidate gene
    Therapy target