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Symbol HIRA contributors: mct - updated : 26-11-2014
HGNC name HIR histone cell cycle regulation defective homolog A (S. cerevisiae)
HGNC id 4916
Location 22q11.21      Physical location : 19.318.223 - 19.419.219
Synonym name tup-like enhancer of split gene
Synonym symbol(s) HIR1P, HIR2P, TUPLE1, TUP1
TYPE functioning gene
text an untranslated antisense transcript in its first intron, see P22K48 (Pizzuti, 99)
STRUCTURE 101.00 kb     25 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Map cen - TUBA8 - PRODH - BFAR - GSCL - TSSK7P - SLC25A1 - CLTCL1 - DVL1L1 - HIRA - MRPL40 - UFD1L- CLDN5 /D22S1668 - qter
Physical map
FLJ40542 22q11.21 hypothetical protein FLJ40542 LOC388843 22 LOC388843 KIAA0819 22q11.21 KIAA0819 protein MICAL3 22q11.21 flavoprotein oxidoreductase MICAL3 PEX26 22q11.21 peroxisome biogenesis factor 26 TUBA8 22q11 tubulin, alpha 8 USP18 22q11.21 ubiquitin specific protease 18 LOC391291 22 LOC391291 LOC388844 22 hypothetical gene supported by AK097777; AK128837; AK129567; BC040613 LOC220522 22q11.21 similar to Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1 precursor (Gamma-glutamyltransferase 1) (CD224 antigen) LOC391292 22 similar to immunoglobulin superfamily, member 3; immunoglobin superfamily, member 3 LOC386610 22q11.21 E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene LOC388845 22 LOC388845 LOC388846 22 similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp434P211.1 - human (fragments) LOC388847 22 similar to breakpoint cluster region isoform 1 LOC391293 22 LOC391293 LOC388848 22 LOC388848 DGCR6 22q11.21 DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 6 PRODH 22q11.21 proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) 1 DGCR5 22q11 DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 5 (non-coding) LOC391294 22 similar to POM121 membrane glycoprotein-like 1 LOC343830 22q11.21 similar to carbonic anhydrase XV DGCR2 22q11.21 DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 2 LOC391295 22 similar to serine/threonine kinase FKSG81; spermiogenesis associated 4 STK22B 22q11.2 serine/threonine kinase 22B (spermiogenesis associated) DGCR14 22q11.21 DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 14 GSCL 22q11.21 goosecoid-like SLC25A1 22q11.21 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1 CLTCL1 22q11.21 clathrin, heavy polypeptide-like 1 HIRA 22q11.21-q11.23 HIR histone cell cycle regulation defective homolog A (S. cerevisiae) MRPL40 22q11.2 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L40 LOC128977 22q11.21 hypothetical protein LOC128977 UFD1L 22q11.21 ubiquitin fusion degradation 1-like CDC45L 22q11.2 CDC45 cell division cycle 45-like (S. cerevisiae) CLDN5 22q11.21 claudin 5 (transmembrane protein deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome) PNUTL1 22q11.21 peanut-like 1 (Drosophila) GP1BB 22q11.21 glycoprotein Ib (platelet), beta polypeptide LOC391296 22 similar to contains similarity to cell wall-plasma membrane linker protein~gene_id:MKA23.5 TBX1 22q11.21 T-box 1 GNB1L 22q11.2 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1-like FLJ21125 22q11.21 hypothetical protein FLJ21125 TXNRD2 22q11.21 thioredoxin reductase 2 COMT 22q11.2 catechol-O-methyltransferase ARVCF 22q11.21 armadillo repeat gene deletes in velocardiofacial syndrome DKFZp761P1121 22q11.21 hypothetical protein DKFZp761P1121 DGCR8 22q11.2 DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 HTF9C 22q11.2 DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 RANBP1 22q11.21 RAN binding protein 1 ZDHHC8 22q11.1 zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 8 LOC388849 22 LOC388849 FLJ32575 22q11.21 hypothetical protein FLJ32575
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
text two isoforms, a long and a short form produced by alternative splicing
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
25 - 4013 - 1017 - 1999 10381330
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
cell lineage
cell lines
physiological period embryo, pregnancy
Text neural crest
  • seven WD-40 repeats
  • a nuclear localization signal (NLS)
  • mono polymer complex
    interspecies homolog to yeast S.cerevisiae HIR histone cell cycle regulation defective
    CATEGORY chaperone/stress , regulatory , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm,nuclear bodies,PML
    basic FUNCTION
  • acting as a transcriptional corepressor
  • required for nucleosome assembly during sperm nucleus decondensation
  • acting as an histone chaperone
  • involved in the formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) in skin fibroblasts
  • HIRA and ASF1A, play an important role in muscle differentiation by facilitating MYOD1 expression
  • involved in chromosome condensation depending on the ability of ASF1A to physically interact with its deposition substrate, histone H3, in addition to its cochaperone, HIRA
  • replication-independent (RI) histone chaperone that is linked to transcription and various developmental processes
  • participates in MEF2A-mediated transcriptional activation
  • involved in both transcriptional activation and repression of target genes, implying that its activity may be regulated under various circumstances
  • may directly contribute to muscle-specific gene activation through MEF2A, MEF2D
  • acts as a scaffold to bring together UBN1, ASF1A, and CABIN1 into a quaternary complex
  • conserved histone chaperone required for regulation of chromatin structure
  • involved in cross-tolerance via regulation of stress-responsive gene expression
  • may stimulate or repress transcription via mediation of nucleosome states, depending on the situation
  • early and transient function of HIRA in response to DNA damage primes chromatin for later reactivation of transcription
  • histone chaperone HIRA plays a critical role in transcription recovery upon UVC damage and does so without significantly affecting the repair process per se
  • HIRA recruitment to damaged regions acts as a priming event making damaged chromatin prone for transcription restart once repair is complete
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    required for cardiac outflow tract septation
    a component
  • component of a multiprotein complex
  • part of the quaternary HIRA/UBN1/CABIN1/ASF1A (HUCA) complex, assembled from recombinant proteins
    small molecule
  • core histones H2B and H4
  • histone binding proteins
  • PAX1
  • ASF1A is a highly conserved histone H3/H4 chaperone that synergizes with two other histone chaperones, CHAF1A and HIRA, in DNA synthesis-coupled and DNA synthesis-independent nucleosome assembly
  • interacts with MEF2A and contributes to the activation of MEF2A-target genes during muscle differentiation
  • CABIN1 interacted with HIRA and their interaction domain was mapped to the C-terminal half of HIRA and the N-terminal part of CABIN1 (CABIN1 opposes MEF2- and HIRA-dependent transcription as assumed by its ability to tether repressive chromatin remodelers)
  • HIRA and CABIN1 interact at ectopic and endogenous levels of expression in cells
  • HIRA interaction with UBN1
  • HIRA is not only critical for HBB expression but is also required for activation of the erythropoietic regulators KLF1 and GATA binding protein 1 (GATA1)
  • cell & other
    corresponding disease(s)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target