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Symbol GNAI2 contributors: mct - updated : 13-09-2017
HGNC name guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2
HGNC id 4385
Location 3p21.31      Physical location : 50.273.646 - 50.296.786
Synonym name
  • GTP-binding regulatory protein Gi alpha-2 chain
  • adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G alpha protein
  • Synonym symbol(s) GNAI2B, GIP, H_LUCA15.1, H_LUCA16.1, Galphai2
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE arranged in tandem
    STRUCTURE 32.67 kb     9 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site
    text structure transcriptional activation of the promoter through nuclear factor-kappaB and antioxidant response elements
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map see SEMA3F
    Physical map
    RBM5 3p21.3 RNA binding motif protein 5 SEMA3F 3p21.31 sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), short basic domain, secreted, (semaphorin) 3F GNAT1 3p21.2 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1 SLC38A3 3p21.3 solute carrier family 38, member 3 GNAI2 3p21.31 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 SEMA3B 3p21.3 sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), short basic domain, secreted, (semaphorin) 3B FLJ38608 3p21.31 hypothetical protein FLJ38608 IFRD2 3p21.3 interferon-related developmental regulator 2 HYAL3 3p21.3 hyaluronoglucosaminidase 3 FUS2 3p21.3 putative tumor suppressor HYAL1 3p21.3 hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 HYAL2 3p21.3 hyaluronoglucosaminidase 2 PDAP2 3p21.3 PDGFA associated protein 2 RASSF1 3p21.3 Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1 ZMYND10 3p21.3 zinc finger, MYND domain containing 10 NPR2L 101F6 3p21.3 putative tumor suppressor 101F6 PL6 3p21.3 placental protein 6 CACNA2D2 3p21.3 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    9 - 2200 - 355 - 2015 25788576
    9 - 2143 - 318 - 2015 25788576
    10 - 2591 - 339 - 2015 25788576
    9 - 2467 - 339 - 2015 25788576
    9 - 2184 - 303 - 2015 25788576
    8 - 2215 - 274 - 2015 25788576
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid/Immunetonsils   highly
    Nervousnerve   highly
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland highly
    Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • three regions named switches 1, 2 and 3 and including the sites for guanine nucleotide binding and effector interaction
  • an helical domain
  • G-alpha family
  • G(i/o/t/z) subfamily
  • CATEGORY signaling
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • regulates a number of cellular functions including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation
  • negative modifier of Ras activation
  • required for chemokine-induced neutrophil arrest
  • having an important role in regulating thymic homing and pre-thymic and early thymocyte differentiation
  • exhibited a more prominent role than GNAI3 in guidance of CD4-CD8--double negative (DN) 1 cell migration and early thymic differentiation
  • involved specifically in the activation of TRPC4
  • variations in GNAI2 and RGS1 expression affect chemokine receptor signaling and the organization of secondary lymphoid organs
  • GNAI2 gene chromatin is a direct target of MTA1 and MTA1 might stimulate the Ras pathway, in part, by repressing the expression of GNAI2, which in turn is a negative regulator of the Raf pathway
  • is a novel CLDN5 partner required for TJ integrity in brain endothelial cells
  • GNAI2 plays an essential role in OXT and EGF signaling to induce prostate cancer cell migration
  • GNAI2, GNAI3 contribute to inflammation by redundant, overlapping, and GNAI-isoform-specific mechanism
  • GNAI2, GNAI3 are therefore critical for B cell chemoattractant receptor signaling and for normal B cell function
  • GNAI2 signaling is required for skeletal muscle growth, regeneration, and satellite cell proliferation and differentiation
  • potential role in the brain development, and impairment of its function might cause defects in neuronal functions which lead to neurodevelopmental disorders
    a component
    small molecule
  • guanine nucleotide binding
  • binding UNC5B (inhibitor of G protein signaling that may have broad significance for axonal guidance and chemotaxis)
  • GNAI2 and ZAP70 mediate RASGRP1 membrane localization and activation of CXCL12-induced T cell functions
  • GNAI2 interacts with CLDN5 and association is correlated with TJ (tight junctions) integrity in brain endothelial cell line
  • CEBPA plays a dual role as an activator and as a repressor of GNAI2 gene transcription
  • essential role for RGS protein/GNAI2 interactions in B lymphocyte-directed cell migration and trafficking
  • cell & other
    repressed by MTA1 (MTA1 behaves as a co-repressor of GNAI2)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    in periventricular nodular heterotopia and intellectual disability
    Susceptibility to high systolic blood pression
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP -318 C>G SNP impairs transcriptional activity through specific binding of Sp1 and is associated with high Systolic blood pression
    Candidate gene candidate genes for Noonan syndrome
    Therapy target
  • Galpha(i2) (-/-) mice have a reduced ventricular effective refractory period and a predisposition to ventricular tachycardia when challenged with programmed electrical stimulation
  • lack of Gnai2 leads to dilative cardiomyopathy and increased mortality in Adrb1 overexpressing mice