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Symbol GATA1 contributors: mct/ - updated : 07-03-2017
HGNC name GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)
HGNC id 4170
Corresponding disease
AMKLDS acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, Down syndrome-related
CDATX dyserythropoietic anemia with thrombocytopenia
CEPX porphyria congenita erythropoietic, X-linked
XLTT thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, hemolysis, and imbalanced globin synthesis
Location Xp11.23      Physical location : 48.644.981 - 48.652.715
Synonym name
  • erythroid transcription factor 1
  • NF-E1 DNA-binding protein
  • globin transcription factor 1
  • Synonym symbol(s) GF1, ERYF1, NFE1, GAT1, GATA-1
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 7.74 kb     6 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map pter - DXS6784 - DXS722 - GATA1 - DXS8281 - DXS1693 - cen
    Authors UCSC (2009)
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    6 - 1501 42.8 413 - 2010 20679399
    also called variant 1L
    - initiation site - 40 330 - 2010 20679399
  • also called GATA1S
  • lacks 83 amino acids at the N-terminal region, i.e., the N-terminal transactivation domain
  • internal AUG codon
  • not sufficient to support normal erythropoiesis
  • normal DNA binding activity but a reduced transactivation potential, which is in agreement with the reported role of the N terminus as a transactivation domain
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestivesalivary gland   highly
    Reproductivemale systemtestis   
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticbasophil Homo sapiens
    Blood/Hematopoieticeosinophil Homo sapiens
    Blood/Hematopoieticerythroid Homo sapiens
    Blood/Hematopoieticmegakaryocyte Homo sapiens
    not specificmast cell Homo sapiens
    ReproductiveSertoli cell
    cell lineage hematopoietic progenitor cells
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • a transactivation domain located in the N terminus (N-TAD) and two zinc finger domains located in the middle of the molecule
  • C-terminal zinc finger (C-finger) essential for GATA1 function, since it is responsible for the recognition of the GATA consensus sequence and consequent binding to DNA, C-terminal and this region of GATA1 indeed functions as a transactivation domain
  • both N-TAD and C-TAD retain redundant as well as specific activities for proper hematopoiesis
  • GATA zinc finger transcription factor family
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm,nuclear bodies
  • associated with a special class of nuclear bodies
  • export of GATA1 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is contingent on its interaction with the COPII (coatomer protein-II) coat subunit SEC24D
  • basic FUNCTION
  • regulation of erythroid development and their critical genes, i.e the globin genes
  • playing a role in osteoblast differentiation
  • essential for terminal erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation
  • involved in regulation of the switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin and in osteoblast differentiation
  • required with FLI1 for development of megakaryocytes
  • playing an essential role for normal erythropoiesis, also in eosinophil development, in the terminal differentiation of mast cells
  • under the influence of GATA1, TRIM35 relocates from cytoplasmic granules to the nucleus where it associates with both ZFPM1 and GATA1
  • with ZNF148, cooccupy cis-regulatory elements of certain erythroid and megakaryocyte-specific genes, including an enhancer of the GATA1 gene itself
  • activating transcription of the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR)
  • may be playing a role in globin switching
  • regulating the angiogenic factor AGGF1
  • master regulator of terminal differentiation of erythroid precursors
  • continuous presence of GATA1,ZFPM1, and NuRD is required to maintain lineage fidelity throughout megakaryocyte-erythroid ontogeny
  • role of GATA1 and IGF signaling in fetal megakaryopoiesis and leukemogenesis in Down syndrome
  • is a major determinant of BRD3 recruitment to genomic targets within chromatin
  • ZFPM1 is required for the formation of all committed Mk- and E-lineage progenitors, whereas GATA1 was observed to be specifically required for E-lineage commitment
  • regulates the expression of a cluster of genes important for hematopoietic cell differentiation toward erythroid and megakaryocytic lineage
  • mitotic GATA1 target genes tend to reactivate more rapidly upon entry into G1 than genes from which GATA1 dissociates
  • novel function of TAL1, RUNX1 and GATA1 in the transcriptional control of PRKACB activity, with implications for cellular signalling control during differentiation and disease
  • unlike GATA1, which inhibits cell division, ZFPM2 promotes proliferation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    a component part of the DNA-binding complex containing LMO2, LDB1, TAL1, and GATA1
    DNA binding sequence
    small molecule
  • FOG1 (in both megakaryocyte and erythrocyte development
  • interacting with ZNF145, coactivating thrombopoetin receptor and inducing megakaryocyte development
  • binding to the beta-globin locus
  • mediating with NFE2 the erythrocyte expression of alpha-spectrin
  • with Sp1 or EKLF (may play a crucial role in bringing regulatory elements such as enhancers in proximity to promoters by promoting the formation of DNA loops)
  • interacting with MED1(acting as a coactivator in erythroid development)
  • interacting with SPI1 (Ets domain of SPI1 and the GATA1 C-terminal zinc finger (CF) form a low affinity interaction in which specific regions of each protein are implicated)
  • GATA1 specifically associates with BCL11A in erythroid cells
  • combinatorial effect of Ikaros and GATA1 impairs close proximity between the locus control region and the gamma-globin genes and might represent an important mechanism of gene regulation during hematopoiesis
  • direct interaction of GATA1 with EHZF was demonstrated(EHZF modulates erythroid cell differentiation through direct binding with GATA1)
  • direct transcriptional target of TAp73alpha
  • HMG2B potentiates GATA1-dependent transcription of GFI1B by POU5F1 and thereby controls erythroid differentiation
  • interaction between GATA1 and ZFPM1 is critical for the development of both erythroid and megakaryocytic cell lineages
  • functional relationship between GATA1 and DMRT1, coexpressed in Sertoli cells
  • is a functionally important target gene of SUPT5H
  • interacting with BRD3, and this interaction is essential for the targeting of GATA1 to chromatin
  • BRD3 binds via its first bromodomain (BD1) to GATA1 in an acetylation-dependent manner
  • GATA1 and its cofactor ZFPM1 are required for the differentiation of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes
  • exogenous expression of ZFPM1 in mast cells leads to displacement of GATA1 from mast cell-specific genes and causes their downregulation
  • utilizes IKAROS and polycomb repressive complex 2 to suppress HES1 and to promote erythropoiesis
  • GATA2 and GATA1 positively and negatively control human IL1RL1 gene transcription, respectively and are involved in IL1RL1 transcription levels in primary basophils maintained in the presence of IL3
  • CDC6 expression is regulated by lineage-specific transcription factor GATA1
  • GATA1 coregulators ZFPM1 and TAL1 dissociate from mitotic chromatin, suggesting that GATA1 functions as platform for their postmitotic recruitment
  • CEBPA and/or GATA1 directly suppress the expression of DACH1 through binding to the promoter region
  • TAL1 associates with GATA1, GATA2, lim-only protein LMO2, and LDB1 in a multimeric complex to regulate erythroid transcription
  • TAL1 can recruit GATA1 and increase GATA1 binding to the EPOR promoter region to stimulate gene expression
  • MED1 is a context-dependent GATA1 coregulator, and also exerts specialized functions in erythroid cells to control GATA1-independent, cell-type-specific genes, which include candidate regulators of erythroid cell development and function
  • GATA1-dependent looping mechanisms may facilitate the conservation of TAL1 regulation despite cis-regulatory remodeling during vertebrate evolution
  • PSTPIP2 is a GATA1-repressed gene that controls megakaryopoiesis
  • GATA1 and TAL1 are bound to the regulatory regions of TFDP2 and upregulate its expression
  • SPI1 and GATA1 transactivate FCER1A
  • GATA1/FOXO3 repressed expression of EXOSC8, a pivotal component of the exosome complex, which mediates RNA surveillance and epigenetic regulation
  • HIRA is not only critical for HBB expression but is also required for activation of the erythropoietic regulators KLF1 and GATA binding protein 1 (GATA1)
  • KLF1 plays a role in facilitating and/or stabilizing GATA1 and TAL1 occupancy in the erythroid genes, contributing to the generation of active chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and chromatin looping
  • GATA2 counteracts the erythroid-specific transcription factor GATA1, to modulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells
  • TAL1 together with hematopoietic transcription factors RUNX1 and GATA1 binds to the promoter of the isoform 3 of PRKACB
  • cell & other
    activated by erythropoietin
    inhibited by inactivated by coactivation of DEATH receptors (TNFRSF6) mediated caspase cleavage
    corresponding disease(s) CDATX , CEPX , AMKLDS , XLTT
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral somatic mutation      
    in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia of Down syndrome
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    mutation, 332G --> C, in exon 2 of GATA1, leading to the synthesis of only the short isoform, leading by normal male to macrocytic anemia, normal platelet counts and neutropenia
    tumoral somatic mutation      
    associated with the myeloproliferative syndrome, transient (TAM) and the acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) of Down syndrome
    tumoral fusion      
    MYB-GATA1 fusion gene in acute basophilic leukemia
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
  • mice deficient in Gata1, transcription factors required for normal megakaryocyte (MK) development, have increased numbers of MKs, reduced numbers of platelets