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Symbol FGF2 contributors: mct/shn - updated : 08-02-2018
HGNC name fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic)
HGNC id 3676
Location 4q28.1      Physical location : 123.747.862 - 123.819.390
Synonym name
  • prostatropin
  • heparin-binding growth factor 2 precursor
  • basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF
  • fibroblast growth factor 2
  • Synonym symbol(s) FGFB, BFGF, HBGF-2
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 71.53 kb     3 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site
    text structure
  • HOXA10 binds to two cis elements in the FGF2 promoter
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map cen - D4S1612 - D4S430 - FGF2 - D4S3250 - D4S2985 - qter
    Physical map
    LOC391691 4 similar to ARHGAP20 protein MAD2L1 4q27 MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast) LOC344988 4q27 similar to GTP-binding protein SAR1a (COPII-associated small GTPase) PRDM5 4q27 PR domain containing 5 FLJ23191 4q27 hypothetical protein FLJ23191 TNIP3 4q27 TNFAIP3 interacting protein 3 GPR103 4q27 G protein-coupled receptor 103 LOC391692 4 similar to TUBULIN BETA CHAIN ANXA5 4q26-q27 annexin A5 FLJ30834 4q27 hypothetical protein FLJ30834 PMSCL1 4q27 polymyositis/scleroderma autoantigen 1, 75kDa CCNA2 4q27 cyclin A2 BBS7 4q27 Bardet-Biedl syndrome 7 TRPC3 4q25-q27 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 3 KIAA1109 4q28.1 hypothetical protein KIAA1109 Tenr 4q28.1 testis nuclear RNA-binding protein IL2 4q26-q27 interleukin 2 IL21 4q26-q27 interleukin 21 FLJ35630 4q28.1 hypothetical protein FLJ35630 FGF2 4q26 fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic) NUDT6 4q26 nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 6 SPATA5 4q27 spermatogenesis associated 5 SPRY1 4q26-q27 sprouty homolog 1, antagonist of FGF signaling (Drosophila) LOC391693 4 similar to ribosomal protein L21 LOC391694 4 similar to Peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) LOC391695 4 similar to Tubulin alpha-4 chain (Alpha-tubulin 4) LOC391696 4 similar to Synaptic glycoprotein SC2 KIAA1223 4q28.1 KIAA1223 protein LOC339951 4q28.1 similar to ENSANGP00000007226 FLJ23056 4q28.1 hypothetical protein FLJ23056
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
  • multiple polyadenylation sites on mRNA
  • five isoforms translated alternatively from AUG or CUG codon, CUG-initiated isorforms are located on nucleus and responsible fro intracrine effect, hwereas AUG-initiated isoform is mostly cytosolic and is responsible for paracrine and autocrine effects of FGF2
  • identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 6774 - 288 - 1999 9858574
    - - - 18 - - 2015 26466960
  • cytosolic isoform
  • plays an unexpected role in the innate immune response
  • directly associated with inactivated DDX58 under physiological conditions, which enhanced DDX58 protein stability, thereby maintaining basal DDX58 levels
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestivestomach   highly
    Endocrinethyroid   highly
    Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea highly
    Nervousbrain   highly Homo sapiens
    Reproductivefemale systemuterus  highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticprogenitor cell Homo sapiens
    Skeletonosteoblast Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    mono polymer monomer
    interspecies ortholog to Fgf2, Mus musculus
    ortholog to Fgf2, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to FGF2, Pan troglodytes
    ortholog to fgf2, Danio rerio
  • heparin-binding fibroblast growth factor family
  • FGF1 subfamily
  • CATEGORY transcription factor , protooncogene , signaling growth factor
    basic FUNCTION
  • plays a specific role in cortical neurogenesis and skin wound healing (
  • inducer of anteroposterior neural pattern
  • essential for FGF8 and FGF10 reciprocal regulation loop in limb induction in mouse
  • involved in angiogenesis (myocardial cell proliferation)
  • enhancing the mitotic and chondrogenic potentials of human adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
  • required for a full proliferative response
  • inhibiting bone mineralization
  • stimulating cell proliferation
  • reduced the TAZ protein expression level in osteoblast-like cells
  • perichondrial FGF1, FGF2, FGF6, FGF7, FGF9, FGF18, FGF21, fGF22 regulate growth plate chondrogenesis
  • inducing the transient activation of JNK and stimulating the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells
  • regulating the stability of nuclear bodies
  • negatively regulates angiogenin expression and contributes to the overall cell proliferation in H7402 hepatoma cells
  • have a role in high glucose-altered molecular signaling in pathogenesis of diabetic renal disease contributes to HeLa cells proliferation by affecting the expression of angiogenin
  • expression in tumor cell is an independent negative prognostic factor and coexpression of FGF2/VEGFR3 is strongly associated with poor survival in non small cell lung carcinomas
  • EGF and FGF2, may play an important role in the fate decision of neural crest progenitors and in the development of the peripheral nervous system
  • implicated in the control of adult neurogenesis based on changes in proliferation and fate choice of adult neural progenitor cells
  • plays a role in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs by activating RUNX2 through MAPK-dependent- and oxidative stress-sensitive-signaling pathways
  • mediates PRSS50 downregulation by ERK activation, leading to the phosphorylation of Sp1 in this process)
  • promotes MSX2 stimulated ENPP1 expression via FRS2/MAPK signaling
  • has been implicated in the control of adult neurogenesis based on changes in proliferation and fate choice of adult neural progenitor cells
  • potential central role for the FGF2/NUDT6 antisense transcript in the ovarian follicle assembly process
  • activates JNK signaling pathway and may be partly responsible for the downregulation of keratocan and lumican expression in activated corneal keratocytes during corneal stromal wound healing (
  • enhances APP phagocytosis in primary microglia and inhibits APP production from primary neurons
  • enhances chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells
  • FGF2 may influence at least two aspects of mesenchymal stem cells chondrogenesis
  • FGF2 inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs)
  • is expressed during the bone healing process of fractures and surgery bone sites
  • FGF1 and FGF2 play a critical role in angiogenesis, a formation of new blood vessels from existing blood vessels
  • histone acetylation and additional chromatin modifiers are important in determining the relative levels of FGF2 and NUDT6, supporting a model in which epigenetic remodeling contributes to their relative expression levels
  • FGF2 and NUDT6 in the regulation of cell transformation and cell cycle progression
  • role of FGF2 in innate immune response
  • abundant growth factor in the brain, exerting multiple functions on neural cells ranging from cell division, cell fate determination to differentiation
  • VEGFA and FGF2 are potent pro-angiogenic factors and play a critical role in cancer development and progression
  • FGF2 was superior, stimulating cell infiltration and angiogenesis better than TNFSF10 and VEGFA
  • is a mitogen that induces proliferation, differentiation, and migration of cells, as well as angiogenesis and carcinogenesis via autocrine or paracrine actions
  • airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs)-derived FGF2 is a factor needed for lymphocyte-derived membrane conduits (LMCs) formation by CD4 T cells, affecting intercellular communication
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle, division, mitosis
    cell life, differentiation
    cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell migration & motility
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development , angiogenesis
  • limb, nervous development
  • mitogenic and angiogenic activities
  • an important modulator of cartilage and bone growth and differentiation (
    signaling signal transduction
  • role for the GPC5-FGF2 pathway in nephrotic syndrome pathogenesis
  • oncogenic pathway that functionally links FGF2 with EZH2 via KDM2B and miR-101
  • a component
  • complex with FGFBP1, FGF1
  • LCOR and TRIM28 form a complex with ZNF350 on an intronic binding site in GADD45A gene and a novel site in the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) gene
    small molecule other,
  • heparin binding
  • protein
  • protein kinase CKII (
  • Platelet factor 4, PF4 (
  • ribosomal protein L6/TAXREB107 (
  • Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, FGFR1 (
  • fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-interacting-factor, FIF (
  • FGFR5 beta Fc and R5 gamma Fc (
  • Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1, FGFBP1 (
  • CXCL13 (
  • ribosomal protein S19 (
  • Human basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, HSPG (
  • glypican 3, GPC3 (
  • Translokin (
  • neuropilin-1, Npn-1 (
  • nuclear active 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 2, RSK2 (
  • Pentraxin 3, PTX3 (
  • thrombospondin-1 type III repeats (
  • CEP57 (
  • GPC1 (
  • induces ENPP1 expression in calvarial pre-osteoblasts and this occurs via a transcriptional mechanism involving RUNX2
  • may be a downstream effecter of FGF2, promoting cell proliferation and protecting from apoptosis
  • interacting with DACH1 (loss of DACH1 increases the number of tumor-initiating cells through transcriptional activation of FGF2)
  • interacting with PTH (anabolic action of PTH on bone formation requires FGF2)
  • ATF4may be a down stream target of FGF2 signaling in osteoblasts
  • FGF2 expression and secretion are regulated in a HOXA10-dependent manner in myeloid progenitor cells and differentiating phagocytes
  • in the tumor microenvironment, the reciprocal interplay between FGF2 and VEGFC collaboratively stimulated tumor growth, angiogenesis
  • FGF2 and CDX4 are direct target genes of HOXA10 and HOXA10 is a CDX4 target gene
  • FGF2 inhibited BMP2 and BMP4 expressions in HMSC
  • FGF2 can modulate BMP pathway in HMSCs by down-regulating BMP/BMPR expression, thereby inhibiting the osteoblastic differentiation of HMSCs
  • FGF2 increases IBSP transcription by targeting the FRE and AP1 elements in the proximal promoter of the human IBSP gene
  • FGF16 prevents potentially angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by antagonizing FGF2
  • may have a negative regulatory role during elastic fiber assembly, perhaps in displacing elastin microassemblies from complexes with FBLN5 and/or cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans
  • FGF2-triggered protection of cardiac subsarcolemmal mitochondria from calcium overload is mitochondrial GJA1-dependent
  • DNM2 dependent endocytosis of FGFR1 is required for angiogenesis in response to FGF2 and the non-classical FGF ligand, FGF21
  • ATP1A1 is a recruitment factor for FGF2 at the inner leaflet of plasma membranes that may control phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent membrane translocation as part of the unconventional secretory pathway of FGF2
  • FGF2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage
  • LTBP2 is a potent inhibitor of FGF2 that may influence FGF2 bioactivity during wound repair particularly in fibrotic tissues
  • FGF2 may be redirecting fibroblasts towards an anti-fibrotic phenotype by overriding TGFB1 mediated ITGA11 expression
  • during DDX58 activation induced by viral RNA, cytosolic FGF2 bound to the caspase recruitment domains of activated DDX58, which blocked DDX58-MAVS complex formation
  • FGF2 mediates hepatic progenitor cell formation during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation by inducing the WNT antagonist NKD1
  • FGF2, a growth factor commonly used to promote self-renewal in Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), rapidly induces HMGA2 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner
  • FGF2 is an extracellular inducer of NR2F2 expression and may suppress the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells by inducing NR2F2 expression prior to the onset of osteogenic differentiation
  • suppression of FGF2 by ETS2 repressor factor (ERF) is required for chorionic trophoblast differentiation
  • LOX propeptide promotes adipogenesis through inhibition of FGF2 signaling
  • cell & other
    activated by apomorphine (APO stimulates the FGF2 promoter via the MZF1 transcription factor)
    Human basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, HSPG (
    induced by mechanical stress in osteogenic cells
    inhibited by CXCL13 (
    Pentraxin 3, PTX3 (
    repressed by HDAC5
    Phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 (
    Other FGF2 expression is under the control of an antisense transcript (see NUDT6)
    regulated by PTTG1
    upregulated by prostaglandin E2
    is regulated endogenously by an overlapping antisense gene called Nudix-type motif 6 (NUDT6)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in ovarian, testicular, breast cancer
    constitutional     --over  
    overproduced in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPH) and contributes to SMC hyperplasia in IPH
    constitutional     --over  
    in the AD brain
    constitutional     --low  
    FGF2 expression is decreased in HOXA10-deficient cells
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    neurologyneurodegenerativehuntington chorea
    potential therapy target in Huntington disease
    virus-mediated FGF2 gene delivery has potential as an alternative therapy of Alzheimer disease and possibly other neurocognitive disorders
  • mice lacking FGF2 are viable and fertile but display abnormalities in the cytoarchitecture of the neocortex, most pronounced in the frontal motor-sensory area, and a significant reduction in neuronal density in most layers of the motor cortex (
  • FGF-2-deficient mice display cerebral cortex defects at birthectopic parvalbumin-positive neurons are present in the hippocampal commissure and neuronal deficiencies are observed in the cervical spinal cord, and are hypotensive (
  • markedly reduced platelike trabecular structures, lost of many connecting rods of trabecular bone are, and a profound decreased mineralization of bone marrow stromal cultures in the Fgf2(-/-) mice (
  • anabolic action of PTH on bone formation is impaired in Fgf2-/- mice compared to wild type
  • Fgf2(-/-) mice exhibited decreased thermal pain sensitivity in the hotplate-test