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FLASH GENE
Symbol DLX2 contributors: mct - updated : 03-06-2013
HGNC name distal-less homeobox 2
HGNC id 2915
Corresponding disease
DEL2Q31 chromosome 2q interstitial deletion, including 2q31.1
Location 2q31.1      Physical location : 172.964.166 - 172.967.478
Synonym name homeobox protein DLX-2
Synonym symbol(s) TES1, TES-1
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 3.31 kb     3 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Physical map
AF357534 2q31.1 thioredoxin 1 pseudogene 7 LOC391459 2 LOC391459 SSB 2q31.1 Sjogren syndrome antigen B (autoantigen LA) HSPC133 2q31.1 HSPC133 protein LOC344287 2q31.1 similar to hypothetical protein A130030D10 KIAA2024 2q31.1 similar to F10G7.10.p MYO3B 2q31.1-q31.2 myosin IIIB LOC389058 2 similar to zinc finger protein Sp5 LOC285140 2q31.1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 beta-like pseudogene LOC389059 2 LOC389059 LOC285141 2q31.1 similar to CG14853-PB GAD1 2q31 glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67kDa) GORASP2 2p24.3-q21.3 golgi reassembly stacking protein 2, 55kDa TLK1 8p22-p12 tousled-like kinase 1 FLJ13984 2q31.1 hypothetical protein FLJ13984 FLJ13096 2q31.1 hypothetical protein FLJ13096 MRPS29P2 2q31.2 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S29 pseudogene 2 LOC389060 2 similar to ribosomal protein S15 CYBRD1 2q31 cytochrome b reductase 1 LOC391460 2 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L21 DNCI2 2q24-q31 dynein, cytoplasmic, intermediate polypeptide 2 SLC25A12 2q24-q31 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, Aralar), member 12 HAT1 2q31.2-q33.1 histone acetyltransferase 1 MAP1D 2q31.1 methionine aminopeptidase 1D DLX1 2q32 distal-less homeo box 1 DLX2 2q32 distal-less homeo box 2 ITGA6 2q22-q31 integrin, alpha 6 PDK1 2q31.1 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 1 CGEF2 2q31 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 1 ZAK 2q24.2 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 1 LOC391461 2 similar to ribosomal protein S2; 40S ribosomal protein S2 CDCA7 2q31 cell division cycle associated 7 LOC344178 2q31.1 similar to peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) LOC344181 2q31.1 similar to ribosomal protein L5; 60S ribosomal protein L5 SP3 2q31 Sp3 transcription factor LOC389061 2 LOC389061 LOC389062 2 LOC389062 LOC391462 2 similar to protein 40kD PTD004 2q31.1 hypothetical protein PTD004 LOC391463 2 similar to Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 2 LOC389063 2 similar to Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (Helix-destabilizing protein) (Single-strand binding protein) (hnRNP core protein A1) (HDP-1) (Topoisomerase-inhibitor suppressed)
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
3 - 2308 - 328 - 1996 8812481
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivepharynx    
Endocrinethyroid    
Reproductivefemale systemovary   
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervousneuron Homo sapiensFetal
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period pregnancy
Text forebrain, facial and limb primordia
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • helix-turn-helix, DNA binding domain
  • a homeobox related to Distal-less (Dll) of drosophila
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to Drosophila distal less Dlx2
    ortholog to murine Dlx2
    homolog to C.elegans Y113G7A.6B
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • distal-less homeobox family
  • CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in forebrain and craniofacial development
  • playing a role during retinal cell differentiation and survival
  • in hippocampal precursors DLX2 promoted neurogenesis but not neural stem cell activation
  • is one critical player in shifting TGFB from its tumour suppressive to its tumour-promoting functions
  • may be involved in tumor progression via the regulation of metabolic stress-induced necrosis
  • plays crucial roles in the development of the cranial neural crest stem cells derived craniofacial skeleton
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development
    text forebrain and craniofacial development
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA binding
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding to BMP2 for the signaling to the COL2A1 in chondroblasts
  • binds to a specific region of the NTRK2 promoter in retinal neuroepithelium during embryogenesis (directly binds and activates transcription of a NTRK2 regulatory element)
  • DLX2 and EGFR signalling interact at multiple levels to coordinate proliferation in the postnatal subventricular zone
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by PITX2 (for early tooth development)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) DEL2Q31
    Susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP increasing the risk of autism spectrum disorders
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS