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FLASH GENE
Symbol DLX2 contributors: mct - updated : 03-06-2015
HGNC name distal-less homeobox 2
HGNC id 2915
Corresponding disease
DEL2Q31 chromosome 2q interstitial deletion, including 2q31.1
Location 2q31.1      Physical location : 172.964.166 - 172.967.478
Synonym name homeobox protein DLX-2
Synonym symbol(s) TES1, TES-1
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 3.31 kb     3 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
3 - 2308 - 328 - 1996 8812481
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivepharynx    
Endocrinethyroid    
Reproductivefemale systemovary   
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervousneuron Homo sapiensFetal
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period pregnancy
Text forebrain, facial and limb primordia
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • helix-turn-helix, DNA binding domain
  • a homeobox related to Distal-less (Dll) of drosophila
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to Drosophila distal less Dlx2
    ortholog to murine Dlx2
    homolog to C.elegans Y113G7A.6B
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • distal-less homeobox family
  • CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in forebrain and craniofacial development
  • playing a role during retinal cell differentiation and survival
  • in hippocampal precursors DLX2 promoted neurogenesis but not neural stem cell activation
  • is one critical player in shifting TGFB from its tumour suppressive to its tumour-promoting functions
  • may be involved in tumor progression via the regulation of metabolic stress-induced necrosis
  • plays crucial roles in the development of the cranial neural crest stem cells derived craniofacial skeleton
  • HELT and DLX2 are key transcription factors that are sufficient to direct neuronal progenitors along a specific differentiation pathway at the expense of alternative lineage choices
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development
    text forebrain and craniofacial development
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA binding
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding to BMP2 for the signaling to the COL2A1 in chondroblasts
  • binds to a specific region of the NTRK2 promoter in retinal neuroepithelium during embryogenesis (directly binds and activates transcription of a NTRK2 regulatory element)
  • DLX2 and EGFR signalling interact at multiple levels to coordinate proliferation in the postnatal subventricular zone
  • bone morphogenetic protein signaling mediated by ACVR1 and DLX2 regulates apoptosis in glioma-initiating cells
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by PITX2 (for early tooth development)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) DEL2Q31
    Susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP increasing the risk of autism spectrum disorders
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS