Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Orphanet Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
FLASH GENE
Symbol CD59 contributors: mct - updated : 31-10-2012
HGNC name CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein
HGNC id 1689
Corresponding disease
CD59D CD59 deficiency
Location 11p13      Physical location : 33.724.557 - 33.758.025
Synonym name
  • homologous restriction factor (18 kD)
  • membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (protectin)
  • CD59 antigen p18-20 (antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 16.3A5, EJ16, EJ30, EL32 and G344)
  • CD59 antigen, complement regulatory protein
  • 1F5 antigen
  • 20 kDa homologous restriction factor
  • membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis
  • membrane attack complex inhibition factor
  • Synonym symbol(s) HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, C8BP, MIN1, MIN2, MIN3, MIC11, MSK21, EJ16, EJ30, EL32, G344, 16.3A5, p18-20, MGC2354, MER1, PROTECTIN
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 33.47 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked   status confirmed
    Map pter - HVBS1 - BDNF - FSHB FSHB - D11S158 - MPPED2 - D11S16 - D11S315 - D11S914 - D11S1322 - AN (PAX6 ) - WT1 WT1 - CD59 - LMO2 - CAT CAT - CD44 - RAG1 /RAG2 - cen
    Authors Hanson (92), Heckl-Ístreicher (93), Bickmore (93), Schwartz (94), Gawin (95)
    Text seeWAGR
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text encoding the same protein
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    4 - 7635 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    5 - 7751 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    6 - 7796 14.2 128 - 2006 16844690
    5 - 7680 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    4 - 7573 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    4 - 7629 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    5 - 7694 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    3 - 7801 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    Lymphoid    
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticerthrocyte
    Lymphoid/Immunelymphocyte
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane glycoprotein
  • ten conserved cysteine residues
  • a W40 AA of CD59 important to its anti-complement activity, and prohibition of this site may be a potential way to increase complement activity and to treat tumors
  • one UPAR/Ly6 domain
  • conjugated GlycoP
    isoforms Precursor
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to murine lymphocyte antigen Ly-6L
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY antigen
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • homologous restriction factor (18 kD) binding through C8G to the membrane attack complex of complement as a membrane inhibitor of cell lysis
  • functions as a co-receptor in natural killer cell activation
  • inhibits assembly of the lytic membrane attack complex of complement by incorporation into the forming complex
  • may inhibit the cytolytic activity of complement by binding to C8/C9 and protect host cell membranes against homologous membrane attack complex (MAC)
  • broadly expressed GPI-anchored molecule, regulates formation of the membrane attack complex of the complement cascade
  • CD55 inhibits the formation of C3 convertases, and CD59 prevents the terminal polymerisation of the membrane attack complex
  • CD55 and CD59 restrict complement activation by inhibiting C3/C5 convertases activities and membrane attack complex formation, respectively (
  • GPI-anchored membrane regulator of complement expressed on blood cells as well as peripheral tissues
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • membrane attack complex of complement
  • physically associated with NKP46 and NCR3
  • CD59 (complement defense 59) mRNA is a novel cleavage target of ERN1
  • cell & other T cell activation
    REGULATION
    activated by HBXIP, that upregulates CD46, CD55 and CD59 through p-ERK1/2/NFKB signaling to protect breast cancer from complement-dependent cytotoxicity
    Other regulated by EHD1 (role for EHD1 in regulating the trafficking of CD59, an endogenous GPI-AP, at early stages of trafficking through the endocytic pathway)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) CD59D
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in cardiac hypertrophy
    constitutional     --low  
    on peripheral blood leucocytes in T2DM patients with macrovascular diseases
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerreproductivebreast
    may be a promising target in the gene therapy of breast cancer
    cancer  
    blockade of CD59 significantly enhanced the CD4(+) T cell response to two different tumor Ags
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Cd59a inhibits systemic autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice through a complement-independent mechanism
  • Cd59 protects against angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice
  • number of endoneurial macrophages was significantly higher in Cd59a deficient mice compared to wildtypes at 1 day post-injury