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FLASH GENE
Symbol BMI1 contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 06-11-2015
HGNC name BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene
HGNC id 1066
Location 10p12.31      Physical location : 22.610.005 - 22.620.417
Synonym name
  • murine leukemia viral (bmi-1) oncogene homolog
  • B lymphoma MO-MLV insertion region (mouse)
  • RING finger protein 51
  • polycomb complex protein BMI-1
  • polycomb group ring finger 4
  • Synonym symbol(s) RNF51, MGC12685, PCGF4
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE tail to tail
    STRUCTURE 10.05 kb     10 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    text structure at least 10 exons
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    LOC340893 10p13 similar to protein of unknown function MRC1 10p13 mannose receptor, C type 1 SLC39A12 10p13 solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 12 CACNB2 10p12 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit NOPD1 10p13 nucleolar protein (NOL1/NOP2/sun) and PUA domains 1 ARL8 10p13 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8 LOC389942 10 similar to Programmed cell death protein 8, mitochondrial precursor (Apoptosis-inducing factor) LOC387635 10 similar to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 isoform a; DNA-binding protein LOC340895 10p12.33 similar to apical early endosomal glycoprotein precursor LOC387636 10 LOC387636 PLXDC2 10p12.33 plexin domain containing 2 LOC220998 10p12.33 similar to Protein C21orf59 NEBL 10p12 similar to Protein C21orf59 LOC387637 10 similar to eukaryotic initiation factor 4B LOC387638 10 LOC387638 LOC387639 10 LOC387639 LOC219689 10p12.33 similar to putative RNA methyltransferase LOC387640 10 similar to RIKEN cDNA E130012A19 MLLT10 10p12 myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila); translocated to, 10 DNAJC1 10p12.31 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 1 LOC340900 10p12.32 similar to Hypothetical protein FLJ10213 LOC338098 10p12 proteasome activator subunit 2 pseudogene LOC389943 10 similar to ribosomal protein L31 BMI1 10p13 B lymphoma MO-MLV insertion region (mouse) C10orf8 10pter-q22.1 chromosome 10 open reading frame 8 SPAG6 10p12-p11.2 sperm associated antigen 6 PIP5K2A 10p11.23 phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type II, alpha FLJ32827 PILB 10p12 phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type II, alpha LOC143371 10p12.31 tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene PTF1A 10p12.31 pancreas specific transcription factor, 1a LOC387642 10 similar to RIKEN cDNA 4921522E24 MGC46732 LOC220213 10p12.31 hypothetical protein LOC220213 DKFZP761L0424 ARHGAP21 10p12.31 Rho GTPase activating protein 21 PRTFDC1 10p12.31 phosphoribosyl transferase domain containing 1 MGC26778 FLJ22002 10p12.31 hypothetical protein FLJ22002 GPR158 10p12.31 G protein-coupled receptor 158 MYO3A 10p11.1 myosin IIIA GAD2 10p11.23 glutamate decarboxylase 2 (pancreatic islets and brain, 65kDa) APBB1IP 10p12.2 amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein LOC387643 10 similar to amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein; proline-rich protein 73; Rap1-interacting adaptor molecule TPT 10p12.2-p12.1 trans-prenyltransferase SSH3BP1 10p11.2 spectrin SH3 domain binding protein 1
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    10 - 3435 36.8 326 - 1993 8268912
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveesophagus   highly
     liver   moderately
     salivary gland   highly
    Lymphoid/Immunethymus   highly
    Nervousbrainhindbraincerebellum highly Homo sapiens
    Reproductivefemale systemovary   
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow   
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiensAdult
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo
    Text developing cerebellum
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • N-terminal Ring-Finger (RF) domain, required for the activation of TERT transcription and immortalization of epithelial cells
  • a domain of homology to Drosophila posterior sex control (PSC)
  • two highly conserved BMI1-binding motifs, which were required for BMI1-mediated CDKN2A promoter regulation
  • a functional recognition motif for the F box protein BTRC, which regulates ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of various proteins
  • C-terminal HTHT (HT) domain, also required for the activation of TERT transcription and immortalization of epithelial cells
  • conjugated PhosphoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to Drosophila Psc
    homolog to murine Bmi1 (97.5pc)
    homolog to rattus Bmi1 (95.4pc)
    intraspecies homolog to bmi-1 protooncogene
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • polycomb gene family
  • CATEGORY transcription factor , protooncogene
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm
    intracellular,nucleus,chromatin/chromosome
    basic FUNCTION
  • senescence regulator, involved in maintaining the transcriptionally repressive state of genes
  • playing an essential role for the generation of self-renewing adult hematopoietic stem cells and in the maintenance and expansion of immature granule cell precursors
  • involved in human colorectal carcinogenesis by repressing the INK4a/ARF proteins (CDKN2A)
  • incorporates DMAP1 in polycomb gene silencing
  • critical role for BMI1 and RING1 in H2A ubiquitylation and HOX gene silencing
  • plays a key role in regulating proliferation of both stem cells and tumor cells in diverse adult epithelial tissues
  • cooperates with FOXG1 to maintain neural stem cell self-renewal
  • is required for optimal proliferation of CD8-positive T cells
  • expression of BMI1 results in the acceleration of proliferation and colony formation in neuroblastoma cells, regulating tumorigenesis through repression of CADM1 and KIF1B
  • cooperating with MYC oncogene to produce B lymphomas
  • renders apoptotic resistance to glioma cells through NFKappaB
  • activating NFKappaB through stimulation of IKappaB phosphorylation
  • might act on cancer cells in part by blocking CDKN2A-mediated pathways
  • polycomb-group protein that maintains self-renewal
  • TWIST1 and BMI1 act cooperatively to repress expression of both E-cadherin and CDKN2A
  • TWIST1 and BMI1 are mutually essential to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promote tumour-initiating capability in cancer cells
  • plays a critical role in the self-renewal of adult stem cells
  • BMI1 and RNF2 are critical components of PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1) that heterodimerize via their N-terminal RING domains to form an active E3 ubiquitin ligase
  • BMI1 and PCGF2 have opposing functions and are present in distinct complexes
  • BMI1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it
  • novel regulatory pathway by which BMI1 action on GATA6 stability could alter the balance between GATA6 and NANOG protein levels to introduce a bias toward a primitive endoderm (PrE) identity in a cell-autonomous manner
  • Polycomb group protein BMI1 plays an important role in cellular homeostasis by maintaining a balance between proliferation and senescence
  • controls the cell cycle-related death process, highlighting this pathway as a promising therapeutic target for neuroprotection in retinal dystrophies
  • may reprogramme the histone acetylation profile in multiple genes through either indirect or direct binding effects which probably contributes to the malignant progression of myeloid progenitor cells
  • BMI1 expression plays a role in TERT-induced immortalisation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)
  • regulates EMT and the migration of breast cancer cells
  • is essential for the activity of both hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cells
  • is an essential epigenetic regulator of stem cell function during normal development and in adult organ systems
  • regulates potentially intestinal stem cell proliferation and self-renewal downstream of NOTCH1
  • KAT6A and BMI1, respectively, promoted and repressed HOX genes during the shift from the transcriptionally repressed to the active state
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • polycomb group (PcG) component of complex with SSX1 and SSX2
  • complexing with EDR1/EDR2
  • ternary complex with DMAP1, and DNMT1
  • forms a functional complex with RNF2, but in the case of CDKN2A repression by BMI1, RNF2 was not involved and was therefore not necessary for BMI1-mediated regulation of CDKN2A
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • colocolizing with RING1, HPC3
  • interacting wth DMAP1 and cooperating in gene silencing, directly interacting with DNMT-associated protein 1 (DMAP1), which has been characterized to associate with the maintenance DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1
  • link between SALL4 and BMI1 in regulating self-renewal of normal and leukemic stem cells (potential role for a SALL4/BMI1 network in leukemogenesis)
  • interacting with E4F1 (genetically interact in the hematopoietic compartment to regulate cellular proliferation)
  • direct regulation of BMI1 by TWIST1, and the functional interdependence between TWIST1 and BMI1, involved in promoting EMT and the tumour-initiating capability of head and neck cancer cells
  • wild-type BMI1 but not the mutant BMI1 interacts with BTRC
  • connection between SOX2 and BMI1 in maintaining self-renewal and identify BMI1 as a key mediator of SOX2 function
  • has a critical role in stabilizing CCNE1 by repressing the expression of FBXW7, a substrate-recognition subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets CCNE1 for degradation
  • IKZF1 is a critical BMI1 target that prevents premature lineage specification of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)
  • BMI1 interacts with GATA6 in a Ring finger-dependent manner to confer protection against GATA6 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation
  • CHMP1A is an essential central nervous system regulator of BMI1, which in turn is a key regulator of stem cell self-renewal
  • acts as an activator of the WNT pathway by repressing Dickkopf (DKK) family of WNT inhibitors
  • post-translational phosphorylation of NANOG is essential to regulate BMI1 and promote tumorigenesis
  • BMI1 directly bound to the promoter region of ZMYM3, which encodes a component of histone deacetylase-containing complexes
  • CDKN1A/CCNE1 pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of BMI1
  • UBAP2L is a novel BMI1-interacting protein, and is a novel BMI1-interacting protein essential for hematopoietic stem cell activity
  • contributes to the motility of glioma cells by regulating the expression of CDKN2A
  • SIN3B is a novel direct target of BMI1, and BMI1-driven repression of SIN3B is an essential regulator of cellular senescence
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by MYCN binding
    repressed by MEL18 )
    Other a C18Y polymorphism within the RING domain is associated with a significant decrease in BMI1 level and an elevated ubiquitination, causing its degradation
    polyubiquitinated but not leading to its proteasomal degradation
    regulation of BMI1 by the EMT regulator, TWIST1
    a positive feedback loop regulates the expression of polycomb group protein BMI1 via WNT signaling pathway
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in chromic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, medulloblastoma and colorectal carcinoma
    tumoral     --other  
    differentially expressed in non small lung cancer and correlated with INK4A locus expression
    constitutional     --low  
    in primary biliary cirrhosis
    tumoral     --over  
    in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other epithelial malignancies, including colorectal carcinoma and liver carcinoma
    tumoral     --over  
    overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and tumors, correlating with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis
    tumoral     --over  
    highly expressed in HCC cell lines and in particular is highly expressed in early and well differentiated HCC, correlating with ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 expression
    tumoral     --low  
    clearly reduces glioma cell migration and invasion
    tumoral   translocation    
    t(10;14)(p12;q32)/IGH-BMI1 rearrangement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • intestinal stem cell marker
  • marker for a subpopulation of self-renewing acinar cells in the exocrine pancreas
  • negative Bmi1 immunoexpression might serve as a marker of poor prognosis in oral tongue carcinoma patients
  • promising intracellular marker of cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer is the oncoprotein BMI1
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerbrain 
    attractive target for cancer therapy
    cancerbrain 
    useful indicator for glioma prognosis
    cancer  
    potent target for cancer stem cells and for the treatment of tumors
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • activated by Moloney murine leukemia proviral insertion in Emu-myc transgenic mouse
  • mice bmi1 show protein transformation of the axial skeleton
  • mild up-regulation of Bmi1 expression in the adult stem cells of the skeletal muscle leads to a remarkable improvement of muscle function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • in Bmi1-null mice, the cerebellar architecture was generally preserved, but the thickness of the granular and molecular layers was markedly reduced
  • transgenic mice overexpressed bmi show an anterior transformation of axial skeleton
  • mice Bmi1-/- have a shortened lifespan and develop numerous abnormalities including defects in stem cell self-renewal and thymocyte maturation. Also show a marked elevation in the intracellular levels of ROS