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Symbol AKT2 contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 24-08-2015
HGNC name v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2
HGNC id 392
Corresponding disease
NIDDM6 diabetes mellitus, non insulin-dependent, 6
Location 19q13.12      Physical location : 40.736.224 - 40.791.265
Synonym name
  • rac protein kinase beta
  • RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase
  • protein kinase Akt-2
  • Synonym symbol(s) PKB-BETA, PRKBB, RAC-BETA, PKBB, RAC-PK-beta
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 55.20 kb     14 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    14 - 5317 55.8 481 - 1992 1409633
    13 - 5187 - 419 - -
    14 - 5280 - 419 - -
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Digestiveintestinesmall intestine  highly
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen   highly
     thymus   highly
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • a SH2 and a pleckstrin homology (PH) N terminal domains
  • a short alpha helical linker
  • a C terminal kinase domain
    interspecies homolog to V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene 2
    homolog to C.elegans F28H6.1
  • protein kinase superfamily
  • AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family
  • RAC subfamily
  • CATEGORY enzyme , protooncogene
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • mitochondrial localization of AKT2 raises the possibility that this isoform may be involved in both glucose-based energy metabolism and suppression of apoptosis
  • basic FUNCTION
  • AKT is a key regulator for cell growth, cell survival
  • playing a central role in insulin sensitivity
  • enhances palladin expression by maintaining protein stability and upregulating transcription
  • AKT2 is indispensable for the regulation of preadipocyte and adipocyte number, whereas AKT1 and AKT2 are equally important for the regulation of insulin-stimulated metabolic pathways in human adipocytes
  • protective effects of AKT2 on the aortic wall, that may serve as a therapeutic target in the prevention of Aortic aneurysm and dissection (AAD)
  • ASAH1 and AKT2 cooperate to induce malignant transformation
  • is essential to maintain podocyte viability and function during chronic kidney disease
  • is potentially important for neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil-platelet interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions such as sickle cell disease (SCD)
  • specific function for AKT2 in mediating survival of PTEN-deficient tumors
  • serine/threonine protein kinase AKT2 is critically involved in insulin-dependent RAC1 activation
  • both AKT1 and AKT2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of DAB2 by AKT induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells
  • macrophage AKT2 regulates migration, the inflammatory response and cholesterol metabolism
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell life, antiapoptosis
  • maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis, survival of lymphoid and other cell types
    PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling pathway is involved in regulation of SPHK1, with AKT2 playing a key role in PDGF-induced SPHK1 expression in coronary artery smooth muscle cells
    a component
    small molecule
  • phosphorylating and inactivating components of the apoptotic machinery including BAD, CASP9 and the transcription factor FKHRL1 (phosphatidyl inositol)
  • down regulating hyperproliferation and antiapoptotic activities induced by IGF1R hyperstimulation
  • preferential interaction between WDFY2 and AKT2 that promotes the maintenance of AKT2 protein levels
  • MAPKAP1/CRTC2-AKT2 signaling axis is a key regulator of FOXO1 transcriptional activity in B cells
  • SNAI1 enhances the binding of AKT2 to the E-cadherin (CDH1) promoter and AKT2 interference prevents SNAI1 repression of CDH1 gene
  • is a negative regulator of NFATC1 activation through its ability to inhibit calcium mobilization from the ER
  • regulates RAC1 activity in the insulin-dependent signaling pathway leading to SLC2A4 translocation to the plasma membrane in skeletal muscle cells
  • PIK3CA activates AKT1, independently of PDPK1, and AKT2 by cooperating with PDPK1 in the insulin signal transduction pathway linked to SLC2A4 translocation
  • binding of CDKN1A to AKT2 in the nucleus is an essential component in determining the specific role of AKT2 in the cell cycle arrest that precedes myogenic differentiation
  • enhanced AKT2 or AKT3 activation also promotes reprogramming and coordinates with LIF to activate STAT3
  • both AKT1 and AKT2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of DAB2 by AKT induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule
  • APPL1 binds to AKT2, a key molecule in the insulin signaling pathway, thereby enhancing insulin-induced AKT2 activation and downstream signaling leading to insulin action and secretion
  • TMOD3 is a novel AKT2 effector regulating insulin-stimulated SLC2A4 exocytosis through cortical actin remodeling
  • cell & other
    activated by growth factors via PI3K binding to PH domain, induced by insulin growth factor 1, and maybe others activated by phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase in the antiapoptotic PI3K pathway
    coactivated by TCL1
    Phosphorylated by PDK1 that phosphorylates AKT1 at Thr308 and AKT2 at Thr309
  • CSNK2A1-dependent phosphorylation is a crucial event which, discriminating between AKT1 and AKT2, can account for different substrate specificities
    corresponding disease(s) NIDDM6
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in ovarian carcinoma
    tumoral   amplification    
    in ovarian and pancreatic carcinomas
    tumoral somatic mutation      
    in the kinase domain occuring in a small fraction of common cancers
    tumoral       gain of function
    associated with the survival of melanoma cells
    tumoral   amplification    
    amplification of AKT1 and/or AKT2 and high-level polysomy were found in lung carcinomas
    tumoral fusion      
    recurrent BCAM-AKT2 fusion gene leads to a constitutively activated AKT2 fusion kinase in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    targeting AKT2 and AKT3 may hold promise for the treatment of patients with gliomas
    argeting AKT2 in macrophages might be beneficial for treating atherosclerosis.
  • Akt2-deficient mice showed abnormal elastic fibers and reduced medial thickness in the aortic wall