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FLASH GENE
Symbol AHSG contributors: mct - updated : 15-12-2015
HGNC name alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein
HGNC id 349
Location 3q27.3      Physical location : 186.330.849 - 186.339.105
Synonym name
  • fetuin A
  • alpha(2) Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein
  • alpha-2-Z-globulin
  • Ba-alpha-2-glycoprotein
  • Synonym symbol(s) HSGA, AHS, FETUA, A2HS, FeTA
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 8.26 kb     7 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Physical map
    SFRS10 3q26.2-q27 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 10 (transformer 2 homolog, Drosophila) LOC344887 3q28 similar to RIKEN cDNA 1110025F24 ETV5 3q28 ets variant gene 5 (ets-related molecule) DGKG 3q27-q28 diacylglycerol kinase, gamma 90kDa CRYGS 3q25-q28 crystallin, gamma S FLJ10560 3q28 hypothetical protein FLJ10560 DNAJB11 3q28 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 11 AHSG 3q27 alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein FETUB 3q27 fetuin B HRG 3q27 histidine-rich glycoprotein LOC391602 3 similar to Histidine-rich glycoprotein precursor (Histidine-proline rich glycoprotein) (HPRG) KNG 3q27 kininogen LOC280644 3q28 proteasome 26S non-ATPase subunit 10 pseudogene EIF4A2 3q28 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A, isoform 2 RFC4 3q27 replication factor C (activator 1) 4, 37kDa LOC389183 3 hypothetical gene supported by BC028116 LOC389184 3 LOC389184 APM1 3q27 LOC389184 LOC285384 3q28 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S20 LOC339928 3q28 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L29 (Cell surface heparin binding protein HIP) SIAT1 3q27-q28 sialyltransferase 1 (beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase) RPL39L 3q27 ribosomal protein L39-like MGC35450 3q28 hypothetical protein MGC35450 MASP1 3q27-q28 mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 (C4/C2 activating component of Ra-reactive factor)
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 1594 39.21 367 - -
    EXPRESSION
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart    
    Digestiveliver    
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen    
    Nervousbrainforebraincerebral cortex   Homo sapiensFetal
     brainlimbic systemhippocampus   Homo sapiensFetal
    Reproductivefemale systembreastmammary gland  
    Urinarykidneytubulecollecting duct   Homo sapiens
     kidneytubuleconvoluted tubule   Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestivehepatocyte
    Nervousependymal cell Homo sapiensFetal
    Skeletonosteoblast Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion serum
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo
    Text brain, bone marrow
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    conjugated GlycoP
    isoforms Precursor
    HOMOLOGY
    intraspecies homolog to collagen
    paralog to fetuin b
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • fetuin family
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transport
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • FGF23 and AHSG proteins co-localized both in cytoplasm and nucleus, which suggests a possible reciprocal interactivity
  • basic FUNCTION
  • inhibitor of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase
  • involved in skeletal development and chronic disorder such as vascular calcifications
  • phosphate level is negatively correlated with AHSG level
  • implicated in the regulation of body fat and insulin sensitivity
  • negative acute phase protein involved in inflammatory diseases, thus being a potential physiological regulator of meprin (MEP1A, MEP1B) activity
  • CST3 an AHSG are endogenous inhibitors of human meprin metalloproteases
  • is a liver-derived blood protein that acts as a potent inhibitor of ectopic mineralization
  • fulfills likely the requirement of an endogenous ligand for TLR4 through which lipids induce insulin resistance
  • regulates potentially endochondral ossification through mineralization inhibition and lipid (hormone) binding
  • lipid-induced AHSG from adipocytes is an efficient chemokine for macrophage migration and polarization
  • acts as an inhibitor of systemic and local ectopic calcification and inflammatory response
  • mediator of inflammatory response that might also be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • AHSG and/or palmitate influence the expression of proinflammatory and angiogenic proteins only partially via TLR4 signalling
  • contributes to the prevention of soft tissue calcification, modulates inflammation, reduces insulin sensitivity and fosters weight gain following high fat diet or ageing
  • liver-derived plasma protein with multiple functions, which is proteolytically processed to yield a disulfide-linked two-chain form
  • role in iron homeostasis
  • liver protein known to inhibit insulin actions
  • serum glycoprotein with recognized anti-calcification activity, also been suggested to modulate both bone formation and resorption
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development , endocytosis transport
    text brain,bone mineralization
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • two polypeptide chains cleaved from the precursor and linked by a disulfide bond
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • type II transmembrane serine protease controlling the expression of hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis
  • testosterone participates in the regulation of hepatic AHSG expression, an effect mediated, at least partially, by androgen receptor activation
  • substrate of TMPRSS6
  • AHSG is produced in bone, mainly in osteocytes, and its production is modulated by FGF23
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    is correlated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
    constitutional     --low  
    decreased serum AHSG levels were independently associated with disease activity in patients with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis
    constitutional     --low  
    in patients with Alzheimer, disease in proportion to the severity of cognitive impairment
    constitutional     --low  
    nephrolithiasis patients had lower AHSG protein level in urine and renal tissue
    constitutional     --low  
    AHSG, MMP9, and MMP3 levels were significantly lower in migraine than controls
    constitutional     --over  
    in diabetes patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
    constitutional     --low  
    serum AHSG concentration is decreased and reflects-at least partly-systemic inflammation in preeclampsia
    Susceptibility to low body mass index
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • SNP associated to low body mass index
  • variant Thr230Met associated with a marked increase in beta2-adrenoceptor sensitivity in subcutaneous fat cells, which may be of importance in body weight regulation
  • Candidate gene
    Marker
  • may serve as a biological link between vascular disease and normal age-related cognitive decline
  • biomarker reported to be important in many metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Fetuin-A deficiency in mice resulted in decreased hepcidin mRNA levels