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Symbol AXL contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 25-01-2016
HGNC name AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
HGNC id 905
  • two Ig-like domains linked to two fibronectin,type III repeats
  • a cytoplamic region that contains an intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase domain
  • protein kinase superfamily
  • Tyr protein kinase family
  • AXL/UFO subfamily
  • CATEGORY enzyme , protooncogene , receptor membrane tyrosine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    text integral to plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • receptor tyrosine kinase
  • involved in the protection of neurons from apoptosis across neuronal migration
  • involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, immunity, platelet function, cancer
  • enhances the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 MMP9, required for AXL-mediated invasion
  • promotes cell invasion by inducing MMP9 activity through activation of NF-kappaB and SMARCA4
  • with its ligand, GAS6, are involved in IL-15-mediated human NK differentiation from CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs)
  • regulates endothelial cell functions by modulation of signaling through angiopoietin/TIE2 and Dickkopf-homologue 3 (DKK3) pathways
  • its expression is required for metastasis of breast cancer cells to the lung
  • enhances endothelial tube formation by acting through the angiopoietin and DKK3 signaling system
  • GAS6/AXL-mediated signaling regulates dendritic cell activities, and identifies GAS6/AXL as a new dendritic cell chemotaxis pathway
  • unique epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition effector that is essential for breast cancer progression
  • is a key downstream target that drives YAP1-dependent oncogenic functions
  • regulates mesothelioma proliferation and invasiveness
  • contributes to carotid remodeling not only by inhibition of apoptosis but also via regulation of immune heterogeneity of vascular cells, cytokine/chemokine expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling
  • is a key TGFB1 effector
  • AXL in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic lineages contributes to the late phase of hypertension.
  • potential contribution of AXL-mediated phosphorylation dynamics to pluripotency-related signaling networks
  • contributes to cell migration and invasion, and promotes cell proliferation
    signaling signal transduction
    AXL/GAS6 pathway contributes to normal NK-cell development, at least in part via its regulatory effects on both the IL15 and c-Kit signaling
  • GAS6/AXL signaling plays an important role in vascular biology by modulating survival and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells
  • a component
    small molecule
  • interacting with RANBP9
  • ligand GAS6
  • ability of TNK2 to modulate AXL and perhaps anaplastic lymphoma kinase (altered in anaplastic large cell lymphomas) might explain why TNK2 can promote metastatic and transformed behavior in a number of cancers
  • GAS6 in circulation is bound to AXL suggesting circulating GAS6 to be inhibited and incapable of stimulating the TAM receptors
  • interacting with MZF1 (binds to the AXL promoter, transactivates promoter activity, and enhances AXL-mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner
  • TULP1 interacts with TYRO3, AXL and MERTK of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily, whereas tubby binds only to MERTK
  • AXL expression is induced by TGFB1 during Langerhans cells (LCs) differentiation and LC precursors acquire AXL early during differentiation
  • GAS6 interact with AXL in endothelial cells, inducing several signaling pathways involved in cell survival and proliferation
  • binding of AXL to YWHAZ, which is essentially required for AXL-mediated cell invasion, transendothelial migration, and resistance against TGFB1
  • ELMO2 scaffolds to be direct substrates and binding partners of AXL
  • GAS6-induced AXL signaling is a critical driver of pancreatic cancer progression
  • ARL2 inhibits the proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity of glioma cells by regulating the expression of AXL
  • cell & other
    induced by IFN-alpha during human dendritic cell (DC) differentiation from monocytes
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    myelogenous leukemia
    tumoral     --over  
    lung carcinoma, invasion and progression
    tumoral     --over  
    colon carcinoma
    tumoral     --over  
    tumoral     --over  
    in both glioma and vascular cells and predict poor prognosis in glioblastoma multiformis patients
    tumoral     --over  
    in breast cancer independently predicts poor overall patient survival
    tumoral   amplification    
    in mesotheliomas
    tumoral     --over  
    in triple-negative/basal B cell lines of breast cancer compared with luminal or basal A cell lines
    constitutional     --over  
    myocardial expression and serum concentration of AXL is elevated in heart failure patients compared to controls
    constitutional     --over  
    plasma soluble AXL concentrations were higher in the preeclampsia patients, and plasma soluble AXL levels were correlated with the clinical parameters of severe preeclampsia
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • role of soluble AXL as a marker for NF1 related tumor burden
  • Therapy target
    specific targeting of the Axl/Gas6 signaling pathway may represent a potential new approach for glioma treatment
    additive effect of AXL inhibition with anti-VEGF suggests that blocking AXL function might be a useful approach for enhancing antiangiogenic therapy and warrant further investigation
    detection and targeted treatment of AXL-expressing tumors represents an important new therapeutic strategy for breast cancer
    unique target for chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment
    potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma
    TYRO3/AXL-GAS6 autocrine circuit sustains the malignant features of thyroid cancer cells and targeting the circuit could offer a novel therapeutic approach in this cancer
    AXL inhibition suppressed mesothelioma anchorage-independent growth
    GAS6 inhibition with low-dose warfarin or other AXL-targeting agents may improve outcome in patients with AXL-expressing tumors
    role for AXL in prostate cancer tumorigenesis with implications for prostate cancer treatment
  • Axl /Tyro3 null mice have delayed first estrus and abnormal cyclicity due to developmental defects in GnRH neuron migration and survival