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Symbol FLT1 contributors: mct - updated : 21-09-2016
HGNC name fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor receptor)
HGNC id 3763
  • extracellular segment with seven immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains
  • a unique transmembrane segment TM1
  • a short intracellular juxtamembrane region
  • a split tyrosine-kinase domain
  • a C terminal sequence
  • conjugated GlycoP
    interspecies homolog to rattus Flt1 (82.47 pc)
    homolog to murine Flt1 (82.04 pc)
  • protein kinase superfamily
  • Tyr protein kinase family
  • Fms family of receptor tyrosine kinase
  • CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily
  • CATEGORY enzyme , receptor membrane tyrosine kinase
        plasma membrane
  • a membrane type I protein isoform and a soluble isoform
  • primarily localized in the nucleus of endothelial cells (
  • is primarily located at the basal aspect of podocyte foot processes, adjacent to the slit diaphragm and in endosomes
  • ROBO4 partially colocalizes with FLT1 in endocytic vesicles, whereas SCARB1 shows more extensive colocalization with FLT1 on the surface of podocytes
  • basic FUNCTION
  • inhibitor of VDGF dependent PI3-kinase activation and endothelial cell migration through the juxtamembrane domain
  • functioning as an antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor
  • playing an essential role in embryonic vasculature, and for preserving the avascular ambit of the cornea
  • acts to promote endothelial tubule branching in an organotypic model of angiogenesis via a mechanism that requires RAB4A and alphavbeta3 Integrin (
  • FLT1 signaling is required for endothelial-cell survival, while KDR regulates capillary tube formation )
  • contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization
  • axis KDR/FLT1 is implicated in endochondral bone repair
  • in primary endothelial cells, hypoxia stimulates VEGFA and FLT1 expression but decreases KDR levels
  • regulates the VEGF-triggered migration of endothelial cells and macrophages
  • having functions in malignant melanoma-initiating cells that regulates vasculogenic mimicry and associated laminin production, and promote tumor growth
  • regulates the VEGFA-triggered migration of endothelial cells and macrophages
  • autocrine function for sFLT1 to control pericyte behavior
  • promotes attachment and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes
  • VEGFA-induced sFLT1 upregulation can operate as a negative feedback system, which if modulated can become a novel therapeutic target for regulating pathological angiogenesis
  • sFLT1 plays an essential role in maintaining vascular integrity in the placenta by sequestering excess maternal VEGFA, suggesting that a local increase in VEGFA can trigger placental overexpression of sFLT1, potentially contributing to the development of preeclampsia and other pregnancy complications
  • secreted FLT1 and cleaved FLT1 will tend to have local effects as a VEGFA antagonist when released from cells expressing KDR and more distant effects when released from cells lacking KDR
  • cell cycle regulator CCNA1 in association with FLT1, is required for haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) and their niches to maintain their function and proper interaction
  • appears to play a role in oxidative stress, which promotes apoptosis of trophoblasts and may be an important mechanism in the development of Pre-eclampsia (PE)
  • soluble FLT1, plays a central role in preeclamptic pathophysiology 5)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    text positive control of cell proliferation
  • non-canonical WNT–FLT1 pathway involved in regulation of angiogenesis in myeloid cells
  • a component
  • FLT1 subunits modulate VEGFA activity predominantly by forming heterodimer receptors with KDR subunits and such heterodimers regulate endothelial cell homeostasis
    small molecule nucleotide,
  • binding to VEGF, VEGFB, PGF and FLK1
  • NFAT target gene in endothelial cells
  • GNB2L1 (receptor for activated protein kinase C 1) binds to FLT1, and regulates FLT1-mediated cell migration via activation of a PI3K/Akt pathway
  • JMJD6 mediates splicing of FLT1 by interacting with U2AF2
  • VEGFB is a high-affinity FLT1 ligand that, unlike PGF, cannot efficiently induce signaling downstream of FLT1
  • stimulates likely angiogenesis via transactivation of the EGF receptor, which promotes the phosphorylation of FLT1 and activation of SYK independent of VEGFA expression
  • FLT1 is involved in regulating phosphorylation of nephrin (
  • LGALSs vascular permeability through the NRP1/FLT1 complex
  • JMJD6 may play a role in regulating the production of FLT1 in the preeclamptic placenta
  • EPO had enhanced carcinogenesis through increase of EPOR and FLT1 expression, and thereby contributed to tumor development
  • cell & other
    activated by hypoxia, in primary endothelial cells
    induced by vitronectin
    repressed by fibrin
    Other regulated by PAX3 or PAX3-FOXO1A
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    in hemangioma endothelial cells, resulting in VEGF-dependent activation of KDR and downstream signaling pathways
    constitutional     --over  
    in placentas of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome
    constitutional     --over  
    higher expression in severe preeclampsia or eclampsia than in normal pregnancy
    constitutional     --over  
    in coronary artery disease where cardiac tissue has been subjected to prolonged or chronic hypoxia, increased VEGFR1, thus selecting for non-ischemic in endothelial cells in promoting pro-angiogenic responses including nitric oxide production
    constitutional     --low  
    loss of expression of FLT1, moderate expression of KDR and high concentration of nitrate associated with aneurysm formation
    constitutional     --over  
    concentration of FLT1 in severe preeclampsia is higher compared with normal pregnancy
    constitutional     --over  
    contributes to endothelial injury in in IgA nephropathy (IgAN)
    constitutional     --low  
    decreased expression of FLT1 in decidua and weaker VEGFA and KDR expression in placental villi and decidua may be associated with early pregnancy loss
    constitutional     --low  
    decreased significantly in serum of patients with ALS
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • with PLGF, is an effective biomarker in predicting PE (preeclampsia) during the second trimester, before the clinical onset of PE
  • sFLT1 levels may be an effective biomarker to predict the progression of heart failure in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • elevated levels of FLT1 are associated with adverse outcomes in stable patients with heart failure
  • FLT1 mRNA expression in maternal blood can be used as a marker to predict the development of fetal growth restriction (FGR), long before a clinical diagnosis is made
  • molecular detection of MAML2 rearrangement combined with FLT1 may be of important clinical value for Primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PMEC)
  • Therapy target
  • in treating neovascular diseases
  • SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    potential therapy target in conditions where inducing angiogenesis might be benficial (preeclampsia, wound healing, strocke and heart disease)
    therapeutic potential for FLT1-modifying drugs in cancer pain
    disrupting PGF/FLT1 pathway could modulate endothelial-colony-forming cells (ECFCs)-induced tubulogenesis, the cell type responsible for newly formed vessels
  • Flk1 disrupted transgenic mice
  • mdx:Flt-1(+/-) adult mice display a developmentally increased vascular density in skeletal muscle compared with the wild-type and mdx mice (mdx:utrophin(-/-):Flt-1(+/-) mice display improved muscle histology and significantly higher survival rates compared with the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, which show more severe muscle phenotypes than the mdx mice)
  • loss of normal foot process structure in mice lacking Flt1 results in massive protein leakage into the urine due to disruption of the glomerular permeability barrier, resulting eventually in kidney failure