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FLASH GENE
Symbol CTSB contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 04-06-2014
HGNC name cathepsin B
HGNC id 2527
Corresponding disease
KWE keratolytic winter erythema
Location 8p23.1      Physical location : 11.700.035 - 11.725.646
Synonym name
  • APP secretase
  • cysteine protease
  • preprocathepsin B
  • amyloid precursor protein secretase
  • Synonym symbol(s) CPSB, STFB, D6F4, APPS, CATB
    EC.number 3.4.22.1
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 25.61 kb     11 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    SOX7 8p22 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 7 PINX1 8p23 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 7 LOC389624 8 LOC389624 LOC286046 8p23.1 hypothetical protein LOC286046 C8orf5 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 5 C8orf15 8p23.1 chromosome 8 open reading frame 15 C8orf6 8p23.1 chromosome 8 open reading frame 6 C8orf7 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 7 LOC392193 8 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L19 LOC157740 8p23.1 hypothetical protein C8orf9 MTMR9 8p23-p22 myotubularin related protein 9 AMAC 8p22 acyl-malonyl condensing enzyme TDH 8p22 L-threonine dehydrogenase C8orf12 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 12 C8orf13 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 13 BLK 8p23-p22 B lymphoid tyrosine kinase C8orf14 8p22 chromosome 8 open reading frame 14 GATA4 8p23.1 GATA binding protein 4 NEIL2 8p23.1 nei like 2 (E. coli) LOC389625 8 similar to Activated RNA polymerase II transcriptional coactivator p15 (Positive cofactor 4) (PC4) (p14) FDFT1 8p23.1-p22 farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 CTSB 8p22 cathepsin B LOC392194 8 similar to putative taste receptor HTR2 LOC389626 8 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor LOC392195 8 similar to chromosome 11 open reading frame2; chromosome  11 open reading frame2 LOC344951 8p23.1 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor LOC389627 8 similar to hypothetical protein LOC169270 LOC389628 8 hypothetical gene supported by AK096301 LOC392196 8 similar to ubiquitin-specific protease 17-like protein LOC392197 8 similar to ubiquitin-specific protease 17-like protein LOC392198 8 similar to ubiquitin-specific protease 17-like protein LOC389629 8 LOC389629 LOC389630 8 similar to FLJ10408 protein LOC392199 8 similar to Asparagine-linked glycosylation 1 homolog (yeast, beta-1,4-mannosyltransferase) LOC389631 8 LOC389631 LOC392200 8 similar to ubiquitin-specific protease 17-like protein LOC392201 8 similar to ubiquitin-specific protease 17-like protein LOC389632 8 LOC389632 LOC389633 8 similar to FLJ10408 protein MGC16279 8p23.1 hypothetical protein MGC16279 LOC389634 8 hypothetical gene supported by BC037255 LOC346708 8p23.1 similar to seven transmembrane helix receptor FLJ23749 8p23.1 hypothetical protein FLJ23749 LOC389635 8 LOC389635
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text All transcripts encode the same protein.
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    10 - 3783 - 339 - 1992 1577456
    also called CTSB variant 1
    12 - 3945 - 339 - 1992 1577456
    also called CTSB variant 2
    11 - 3902 - 339 - 1992 1577456
    also called CTSB variant 3
    11 - 3871 - 339 - 1992 1577456
    also called CTSB variant 4
    11 - 3857 - 339 - 1992 1577456
    also called CTSB variant 5
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveesophagus   highly
    Endocrinethyroid   highly
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen   highly
    Reproductivefemale systemplacenta  highly
    Skin/Tegumentskinpalmoplantar  highly Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone   
    Epithelialbarrier liningepidermisstratum spinosumhighly Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    not specificmast cell Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentkeratinocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a signal peptide
  • a catalytic triad, cysteine, histidine and asparagine
  • mono polymer monomer
    isoforms Precursor
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • papain superfamily
  • peptidase C1 family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , protooncogene
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,lysosome
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,granule
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleolus
    text
  • association of active cathepsin B with plasma membrane caveolae
  • CTSL1 and CTSB colocalize to the secretory granule compartment of skin mast cells
  • basic FUNCTION
  • lysosomal cysteine and aspartyl proteinase, involved in matrix degradation during endochondral ossification
  • APP secretase, may be prorenin-processing enzyme
  • involved in skeletal myoblast differentiation and fusion
  • contributing to both local invasion at the early stage and remote metastasis in colorectal cancer
  • contributing to cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis and pathological proteolysis in rheumatoid arthritis and cancer
  • involved in the motor neuron degeneration in ALS
  • active form is secreted from fusing myoblasts at physiological pH
  • playing a role in the physiological functions of placental and decidual macrophages in mediating villous angiogenesis and decidual apoptosis
  • may play important roles during normal placentation and in the etiology of pre-eclampsia
  • lysosomal protease that is localized throughout the epidermal layers and secreted into pericellular spaces
  • essential during initial stages of wound healing, while its contribution to the subsequent processes of proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes was of less significance
  • might directly cleave ECM constituents or it may initiate proteolytic cascades that involve other proteases with the ability to degrade ECM components
  • target of Hedgehog signaling in pancreatic cancer
  • molecular link between autophagy and apoptosis
  • pivotal role in cell death induced by SPARC in primitive neuroectodermal tumors cells (PNET)
  • induces apoptosis through BID cleavage in SPARC overexpressed PNET cells
  • importance of CTSB, CTSS and Cystatins in immunomodulation
  • CTSL1 and CTSB are central to the processing of protryptase(s) in human mast cells
  • CTSB, CTSK, CTSL, CTSS may be putative leptin activity regulators in white adipose tissue (WAT)
  • prometastatic role for cathepsin B in distant metastasis
  • is an essential enzyme for the induction of chronic inflammatory pain through its activation of proCASP1, which subsequently induces the maturation and secretion of IL1B and IL18 by spinal microglia
  • is a novel gender-dependent determinant of cholesterol absorption from the intestine
  • may act as an oncogene inendometrial cancer
  • lysosomal cysteine protease primarily involved in the degradation or processing of lysosomal proteins
  • CTSB and CTSL are essential in SNCA lysosomal degradation, establishing groundwork to explore mechanisms to enhance their cellular activity and levels as a potential strategy for clearance of SNCA
  • cysteine protease involved in keratinocyte homeostasis
  • crucial cysteine protease for keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • dimer of heavy and light chains linked by disulfide bonds
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • interacting with TNC for progression of gliomas
  • ADAMTSL4 binding protein, with bikunin (involved in the apoptotic pathway of ovarian cancer cells)
  • BID is putative cathepsin B target in SPARC-induced apoptosis
  • MCOLN1 loss specifically causes, an increase in the lysosomal protease CTSB and the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP1
  • ATG7-induced CTSB overexpression contributes to an NLRP3-dependent proinflammatory response and subsequently impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) independently of apoptosis
  • critical regulatory role for that endogenous CTSD activity in dopaminergic cells in SNCA homeostasis which cannot be compensated for by increased CTSB
  • APP is able to affect the downstream effects of protease inhibition in neural cells including enhancement of CTSB activity, with these changes in CTSB significantly and inversely related to the levels of ubiquitinated protein
  • CTSZ is the compensatory protease that regulates the acquired tumor-promoting functions of lesions deficient in both CTSB and CTSS
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by gene silencing and antisense DNA in human chondrocytes
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) KWE
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    tumoral     --over  
    in malignant anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas
    Susceptibility to osteoarthritis
    Variant & Polymorphism other overexpression of truncated form (lacking exons 2 and 3) in osteoarthritic cartilage
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • might serve as a prognostic and therapeutic marker for lung squamous cell carcinoma
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerreproductivebreast
    with its substrate BID were shown to be molecular links between apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer MCF-7 cells exposed to the cytostatic drug, camptothecin
    metabolismlysosome 
    targeting CTSB may be of relevance in the treatment of liver fibrosis in patients with Niemann-Pick disease
    cancerreproductiveuterus
    potential to provide a new therapeutic target for treating endometrial malignancy
    miscelleaneouspain 
    CTSB-specific inhibitors may represent a useful new strategy for treating inflammation-associated pain
    cancermetastases 
    therapeutic benefits of its selective inhibition in bone metastasis in breast cancer
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS