Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Orphanet Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
Symbol TRIM32 contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 27-11-2018
HGNC name tripartite motif-containing 32
HGNC id 16380
Corresponding disease
BBS11 Bardet-Biedl syndrome 11
LGMD2H limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H
Location 9q33.1      Physical location : 119.449.580 - 119.463.579
Synonym name
  • zinc-finger protein HT2A
  • TAT-interactive protein, 72-KD
  • muscular dystrophy, Hutterite type
  • Synonym symbol(s) HT2A, TATIP, BBS11, LGMD2H
    EC.number 6.3.2.-/
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 14.00 kb     2 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map cen - D9S170 - D9S154 - TRIM32 - D9S1802 - D9S1811 - qter
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text two transcripts encode the same protein
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    2 splicing 3734 71.9 653 - 2001 11331580
    2 splicing 3731 71.9 653 - 2001 11331580
    using a different splice site in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon  
    Nervousbrain   predominantly Homo sapiensTRIM32 RNA
    Reproductivefemale systemuterus  highly
     male systemprostate   
     male systemtestis   
    Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularstriatumskeletal lowly Homo sapiensTRIM32 RNA
    Muscularstriatumskeletal   Mus musculusAdult
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularmyoblast Homo sapiensTRIM32 RNA
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period
    Text TRIM32 mRNA expression is &
    8764;16 times higher in myoblasts than in skeletal muscle tissue
  • an N-terminal RING zinc finger, necessary for the pro-apoptotic function of TRM32 as well as being responsible for its E3 ligase activity
  • a type 2 B-box domain
  • a coiled-coil domain (RBCC) so called tripartite motif (TRIM)
  • five NHL repeats
  • C-terminus forms a beta-propeller NHL domain
  • conjugated PhosphoP
    interspecies homolog to rattus Trim32 (96.9 pc)
    homolog to murine Trim32 (96.2 pc)
  • C-VII TRIM family
  • TRIM/RBCC family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , protooncogene
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • accumulated in cytoplasmic granules
  • localized to the Z-line in skeletal muscle
  • basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in mediating biological activity of the HIV1-TAT protein (lentiviral tat protein)
  • having E3-ubiquitin-ligase activity, and playing a role in regulating components of the cytoskeleton
  • required for the localization of G protein-coupled receptors to primary cilia on central neurons
  • participating in myofibrillar protein turnover, especially during muscle adaptation
  • acting as a transcription coactivator
  • mediating the ubiquitination of ABI2
  • being a novel oncogene that promotes tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer drugs
  • E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to myosin and ubiquitinates actin
  • promotes PIAS4 ubiquitination and degradation, and by controlling PIAS4 stability, regulates UVB-induced keratinocyte apoptosis through induction of NFkappaB
  • regulator of dysbindin (the LGMD2H/STM mutations may impair substrate ubiquitination)
  • thought to be involved in protein ubiquitination, but its precise physiological role in muscle is unknown
  • sensitizes cells to TNF-induced apoptosis
  • has specific E3 ligase activity against XIAP and down-regulates XIAP through its RING domain-dependent E3 ligase activity
  • may act as a general sensitizer of various pro-apoptotic signals triggering either the intrinsic or the extrinsic pathway
  • functions as one of the co-activators for RARA-mediated transcription
  • during fasting, desmin phosphorylation increases and enhances TRIM32-mediated degradation of the desmin cytoskeleton, which appears to facilitate the breakdown of Z-bands and thin filaments
  • mutual regulation between TP73 and TRIM32 constitutes a novel feedback loop, which might have important implications in central nervous system development as well as relevance in oncogenesis
  • function of the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 for a balanced activity of the adult neurogenesis process
  • is a positive regulator of Asymmetric cell division (ACD) that acts against MYCN and should be considered as a tumor-suppressor candidate
  • regulates fate specification of neural stem cells
  • is a novel essential positive factor modulating axonal regeneration and the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury (SCI), possibly through suppressing proliferation of glial cells
  • TRIM32 associates with the deubiquitination enzyme USP7, which previously has been implicated in neural stem cell maintenance, and exhibit a dynamic and partially overlapping expression pattern during neuronal differentiation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    protein, ubiquitin dependent proteolysis
  • fat cell differentiation
    a component
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • maybe involved in protein-protein interaction, noteworthy lentiviral TAT protein through its NHL repeats
  • interacting with the head and neck region of myosin
  • E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts in conjunction with ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UBCH5A, UBCH5C, and UBCH6
  • binding specifically to the activation domain of HIV-1 Tat
  • can also interact with the HIV-2 and EIAV Tat proteins in vivo
  • interaction of PIAS4 with TRIM32, an E3-ubiquitin ligase promotes PIAS4 degradation and regulates UVB-induced keratinocyte apoptosis through NFkappaB
  • binding to ABI2
  • binds and ubiquitinates DNBDD1, a protein implicated in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia, augmenting its degradation)
  • binds and ubiquitinates dysbindin, a protein implicated in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia, augmenting its degradation
  • interactions between TRIM32 and UBE2V2, and UBE2V1 (TRIM E3 activity is only manifest with the UBE2 with which they interact)
  • colocalizes and directly interacts with XIAP, a well known cancer therapeutic target, through its coiled-coil and NHL domains
  • interacts with RARA and enhances its transcriptional activity in the presence of RA
  • ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls myogenic differentiation process through the regulation of MYC, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors
  • interacted with TMEM173A, and was located at the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum
  • TRIM32, a new direct TP73 transcriptional target in the context of neural progenitor cells, is differentially regulated by TP73
  • TRIM32 interacted with MYCN at spindle poles during mitosis, facilitating proteasomal degradation of MYCN at spindle poles and inducing Asymmetric cell division (ACD)
  • TRIM32 interacts with TP53 and promotes TP53 degradation through ubiquitination
  • NDRG2 is a novel target for TRIM32 and TRIM32 is involved in control of myogenic cells proliferation and differentiation
  • TRIM32 associates with proteins involved in neurogenesis and RNA-related processes, such as the RNA helicase DDX6, which has been implicated in microRNA regulation
  • is essential for the induction of neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells by poly-ubiquitinating MYC to target it for degradation resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation
  • TRIM32 modulates pluripotency entry and exit by directly regulating POU5F1 stability
  • TRIM32 binds to the promoter region of SNCA, suggesting a novel mechanism of its transcriptional regulation
  • TRIM32 negatively regulates TLR3/4-mediated immune responses by targeting TICAM1 to TAX1BP1-mediated selective autophagic degradation
  • balanced ubiquitination and deubiquitination of MYC by TRIM32 and USP7 is a novel mechanism for stem cell fate determination
  • cell & other
    induced by in myogenic differentiation
    repressed by IFN-gamma and LPS
    corresponding disease(s) LGMD2H , BBS11
    related resource Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy pages
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    were detected in gastric cancer tissues
    in atopic dermatitis skin compared with healthy control and psoriatic skin suggest a defective TRIM32 pathway in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • TRIM32 expression levels may be of potential prognostic value in gastric cancer
  • Therapy target
    potential therapeutic target for developmental disorders and RA-dependent leukemias
    is a possible therapeutic target to favor skeletal muscle regeneration in DMD patients
  • histological analysis of T32KO (Trim32 knock-out model) skeletal muscles revealed mild myopathic changes, electron microscopy showed areas with Z-line streaming and a dilated sarcotubular system with vacuoles -- the latter being a prominent feature of sarcotubular myopathy
  • Trim32-null mice showed a decrease in the concentration of neurofilament proteins in the brain and a reduced motoraxon diamete
  • Trim32-/- mice produced higher levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and were more sensitive to loss of body weight and inflammatory death upon Salmonella typhimurium infection