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Symbol PTGS2 contributors: mct - updated : 25-12-2014
HGNC name prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)
HGNC id 9605
Location 1q31.1      Physical location : 186.640.944 - 186.649.559
Synonym name
  • cyclooxygenase 2
  • prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase
  • PGH synthase 2
  • PHS II
  • Synonym symbol(s) COX2, PGH2, PGHS2, COX-2, GRIPGHS, PGG/HS
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 8.61 kb     10 Exon(s)
    Genomic sequence alignment details
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor   HRE
    motif repetitive sequence   other
    text structure
  • 5'-flanking region has shown several potential transcription regulatory sequences, including a TATA box, a C/EBP motif, two AP-2 sites, three SP1 sites, two NF-kappa B sites, a CRE motif and an Ets-1 site (Appleby 1994)
  • three SNP in the promoter
  • regulation of the promoter by an interplay between two opposite beta isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein and p300 coactivator
  • a Lef1-binding site at the 3 prime region of the genomic locus
  • promoter activity was repressed upon SNAI1 overexpression
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    RGS8 1q25-q31 regulator of G-protein signalling 8 NPL 1q25 N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) DHX9 1q25 DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box polypeptide 9 C1orf14 1q25-q31 chromosome 1 open reading frame 14 LOC391143 1 similar to natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1; lymphocyte antigen 94 (mouse) homolog (activating NK-receptor; NK-p46); lymphocyte antigen 94 (mouse) homolog (activating NK-receptor ; NK-p46); lymphocyte antigen 94 homolog, a LOC343326 1q25.2 similar to Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 (Cytokeratin 18) (K18) (CK 18) LAMC1 1q31 laminin, gamma 1 (formerly LAMB2) LAMC2 1q25-q31 laminin, gamma 2 NMNAT2 1q25-q31 nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 C1orf16 1q25-q31 chromosome 1 open reading frame 16 NCF2 1q25 neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (65kDa, chronic granulomatous disease, autosomal 2) ARPC5 1q25.2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa RGL 1q25.2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa C1orf17 1q25-q31 chromosome 1 open reading frame 17 C1orf19 1q25-q31 chromosome 1 open reading frame 19 LOC391144 1 similar to Rho-GTPase-activating protein 8 C1orf21 1q25-q31 chromosome 1 open reading frame 21 C1orf22 1q24-q25 chromosome 1 open reading frame 22 C1orf24 1q25-q31 chromosome 1 open reading frame 24 RNF2 1q25.1 ring finger protein 2 C1orf25 1q25.2 chromosome 1 open reading frame 25 C1orf26 1q25 chromosome 1 open reading frame 26 IVNS1ABP 1q25.1-q31.1 influenza virus NS1A binding protein FIBL-6 1q25.3 hemicentin PRG4 1q25-q31 proteoglycan 4, (megakaryocyte stimulating factor, articular superficial zone protein, camptodactyly, arthropathy, coxa vara, pericarditis syndrome) TPR 1q25 translocated promoter region (to activated MET oncogene) C1orf27 1q25-q31 translocated promoter region (to activated MET oncogene) PDC 1q32-q41 phosducin LOC391145 1 similar to KIAA1871 protein PTGS2 1q25.2-q25.3 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) PLA2G4A 1q25 phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent) LOC343332 1q25.3 similar to Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase (FPP synthetase) (FPS) (Farnesyl diphosphate synthetase) DBCCR1L 1q25.3 DBCCR1-like
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    10 - 4507 - 604 - PMID: 7945196
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveesophagus   highly
     pharynx   highly
    Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix highly
     male systemprostate  highly
     male systemseminal vesicles   
     male systemmale genital tractejaculatory duct  
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal, growth/childhood, puberty
    Text seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts,prebubertal period
  • a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bunded antiparallel beta-barrel which encloses an internal ligand binding site
  • one EGF-like domain
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    interspecies homolog to murine Ptgs2
  • Kernel group, lipocalin family
  • prostaglandin G/H synthase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , protooncogene , transport
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • prostaglandin G/H synthase, potent mediator of inflammation and role for prostanoid signaling in activity dependent plasticity
  • oxidoreductase/electron transporter
  • inducible enzyme that plays an important role in several pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis( may be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in pituitary tumors)
  • playing an important role in ischemic proliferative retinopathy, as in diabetes
  • stimulates colon cancer cell growth through its heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, EP2
  • catalyzing the crucial step of the production of prostaglandin E2, which is a principal mediator of joint inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • may also play a role in pterygium formation
  • is transcriptionally active before and after labour
  • in cardiomyocytes, influences cardiac rhythm and function
  • with ST6GALNAC5 and HBEGF, are mediators of cancer cell passage through the blood-brain barrier
  • PTGES and PTGS2 are co-localized and act together to exacerbate stroke injury, by excessive PGE(2) production
  • plays an important role in GDF2 induced osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS electron transport
    a component
    small molecule
  • interacting with ADIPOQ and PRKAB1 to protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury
  • interacting with ELAVL1(can stabilize the mRNA of PTGS2, and cytoplasmic expression of ELAVL1 is associated with increased PTGS2 expression in some cancers)
  • negatively regulating STK17B, a serine-threonine kinase implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism for the effect of PTGS2 on cancer cell survival
  • PTGS2 and GDF2 may form an important regulatory loop to orchestrate the osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells
  • PTGS2 and and VEGFC are inducers of lymphangiogenesis and their expression levels were correlated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • MAT2A interacts with histone methyltransferase SETDB1 and inhibits PTGS2 gene expression
  • RXRA suppresses PGE2 production through inhibiting NFKB activity and PTGS2 expression
  • CAV1 may be a cofactor in the interaction of DERL1 and PTGS2 and may facilitate DERL1- and VCP complex-mediated PTGS2 ubiquitination, retrotranslocation, and degradation
  • AREG, BTC, and EREG induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by upregulating PTGS2 expression through ERK1/2 signaling in granulosa cells
  • role for ADRB1 in the downregulation of PTGS2
  • PTH can stimulate a novel negative feedback of its anabolic actions by stimulating TNFSF1l and PTGS2 expression
  • cell & other
    activated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2A)
    induced by mitogen and cytokine inducible form
    Other regulated by an endogenous cellular factor
    regulated by LEF1 with CTNN1B in arthritic chondrocytes
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, in retinoblastoma, and in cholangiocarcinoma
    tumoral     --over  
    in lung and colon adenocarcinoma, pituitary tumors and mammary tumors, in colorectal adenomas
    tumoral     --over  
    correlated with K-RAS mutation in colorectal adenoma in progression
    constitutional     --over  
    in neurals cell of the myenteric plexus in active inflammatory bowel disease
    constitutional     --over  
    in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    tumoral     --over  
    in renal call carcinoma
    constitutional       loss of function
    in cardiomyocytes may contribute to heart failure in patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs specific for inhibition of PTGS2
    tumoral     --over  
    in colorectal cancer (CRC), rendering tumour cells resistant to apoptosis
    constitutional     --over  
    in the amnion is critical for the production of prostaglandins that induce labour
    tumoral     --low  
    in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (pMID: 23261444)
  • to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima indians
  • to development of prostate cancer
  • to aspirin resistance
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP , insertion/deletion
  • allele C associated with decreased promoter activity and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • SNP -297G was associated with a decreased risk for prostate cancer
  • partial deletion of exon 5 associated with aspirin resistance
  • Candidate gene for treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Therapy target