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FLASH GENE
Symbol VEGFB contributors: mct - updated : 22-12-2014
HGNC name vascular endothelial growth factor B
HGNC id 12681
Location 11q13.1      Physical location : 64.002.265 - 64.006.258
Synonym symbol(s) VPFB, VRF, VEGFL
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 4.58 kb     7 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked   status provisional
Map cen - PLCB3 - PPP1R14B - FKBP2 - VEGFB - qter
Authors Grimmond (96)
Physical map
LOC144097 11q13.1 hypothetical protein BC007540 MARK2 11q12-q13 MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 LOC283248 11q13.1 hypothetical protein LOC283248 FLJ13848 11q13.1 hypothetical protein FLJ13848 COX8 11q13.1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII OTUB1 11q13.1 OTU domain, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 1 LRP16 11q11 LRP16 protein LOC387776 11 LOC387776 FLRT1 11q12-q13 fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 1 STIP1 11q13.2 stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein) URP2 11q13.1 UNC-112 related protein 2 short form MGC11134 11q13.1 tRNA splicing 2' phosphotransferase 1 MGC13045 11q13.1 hypothetical protein MGC13045 DNAJC4 11q13 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 4 VEGFB 11q13 vascular endothelial growth factor B FKBP2 11q13.1 FK506 binding protein 2, 13kDa PPP1R14B 11q13 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B PLCB3 11q13.1-q13.2 phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific) BAD 11q12.3 BCL2-antagonist of cell death C11ORF4 11cen-q22.3 chromosome 11 hypothetical protein ORF4 KCNK4 11q13 potassium channel, subfamily K, member 4 ESRRA 11q12-q13 estrogen-related receptor alpha HSPC152 11q13.1 hypothetical protein HSPC152 PRDX5 11q13.1 peroxiredoxin 5 FLJ37970 11q12.3 hypothetical protein FLJ37970 RPS6KA4 11q11-q13 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 4 LOC387777 11 LOC387777 FLJ37045 11q13.1 hypothetical protein FLJ37045
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
7 splicing 1822 22.8 207 expressed at lower levels and only in a limited number of tissues 1996 8702615
  • a 186 amino acids mature peptide (20.5 kDa)
  • also called VEGFB186
  • 7 splicing 1721 20.7 188 mainly expressed in the most tissues including skeletal muscles, myocardium and brown fat 1996 8702615
  • different acceptor site in exon 6, leading to an alternative ORF at the C terminus
  • a 167 amino acids mature peptide (18.4 kDa)
  • also called VEGFB167
  • EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   lowly
    Digestivemouthtongue  highly
     salivary gland   moderately
    Endocrinepancreas   moderately
     parathyroid   highly
    Lymphoid/Immunetonsils   moderately
    Nervousnervecranial nerve  moderately
    Reproductivefemale systemovary  moderately
    Respiratorylung   moderately
    Urinarykidney   moderately
    Visualeye   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connective   moderately
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period growth/childhood
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • homolog domain to VEGF at the N terminus
  • only for the shorter form at the C terminus, with 16 cysteine residues
  • a 21 anino acids signal peptide (2.3 kDa)
  • a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) domain
  • mono polymer homomer , heteromer , dimer
    isoforms Precursor a 186 amino acids mature peptide (20.5 kDa)
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Vegfb (86.96 pc)
    Homologene
    FAMILY PDGF/VEGF growth factor family, VEGF protein family
    CATEGORY signaling growth factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,membrane
    intracellular,nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • growth factor for endothelial cells, involved in vasculogenesis
  • might be involved in formation of coronary collaterals
  • dispensable for blood vessel growth, but it is critical for their survival
  • role in endothelial targeting of lipids to peripheral tissues
  • specifically controlled endothelial uptake of fatty acids via transcriptional regulation of vascular fatty acid transport proteins
  • is a natural response to neurodegenerative challenges
  • controls endothelial uptake and transport of fatty acids in heart and skeletal muscle
  • angiogenesis factor and ERK1/2 and MAPK14-related signaling pathways were involved in these VEGFB activities 0)
  • VEGFB- signaling had determinant roles in insulin resistance, lipid distribution and metabolism in type 2 diabetes
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • heterodimerizing with VEGFA
  • FLTR4 (VEGFR3)
  • NRP1
  • TEAD4 in endothelial cells upregulates VEGFB, which is able to stimulate hypertrophic genes in cardiomyocytes
  • VEGFB is a high-affinity FLT1 ligand that, unlike PGF, cannot efficiently induce signaling downstream of FLT1
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by hypoxia-inducible
    TGFB1
    repressed by downregulated by VHL
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    high VEGFB levels might correlate with the presence of hyperlipidemia and target organ damage in type 2 diabetic patients
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    diabetetype 2 
    VEGFB antagonism is a novel pharmacological approach for type 2 diabetes, targeting the lipid-transport properties of the endothelium to improve muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal
    cancer  
    inhibition may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat neovascular diseases
    neurologyneurodegenerativeParkinson/dementia Parkinsonism
    VEGF-B(186) could be a new candidate trophic factor for the treatment of PD
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS