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Symbol ULK1 contributors: mct - updated : 20-03-2015
HGNC name unc-51-like kinase 1 (C. elegans)
HGNC id 12558
Location 12q24.33      Physical location : 132.379.278 - 132.407.706
Genatlas name
  • uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1
  • Synonym name
  • ATG1 autophagy related 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)
  • Unc-51-like kinase 1
  • Synonym symbol(s) UNC51, KIAA0722, ATG1, FLJ38455, FLJ46475, Unc51.1, ATG1A
    EC.number 2.7.11. 1
    TYPE like-sequence
    STRUCTURE 28.43 kb     28 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    PIWIL1 12q24.33 piwi-like 1 (Drosophila) KIAA0318 12q24.33 piwi-like 1 (Drosophila) EPIM 7q34-qter epimorphin RAN 6p21.3 RAN, member RAS oncogene family LOC390367 12 LOC390367 LOC390368 12 similar to MAL13P1.296 GPR133 12q24.33 G protein-coupled receptor 133 LOC390369 12 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S6 (Phosphoprotein NP33) LOC338797 12q24.33 hypothetical protein LOC338797 LOC387896 12 LOC387896 LOC387897 12 LOC387897 LOC390370 12 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S6 (Phosphoprotein NP33) SFRS8 12q24.33 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 8 (suppressor-of-white-apricot homolog, Drosophila) MMP17 12q24.33 matrix metalloproteinase 17 (membrane-inserted) ULK1 12q24.3 unc-51-like kinase 1 (C. elegans) LOC387898 12 LOC387898 PUS1 12q24.33 pseudouridylate synthase 1 EP400 12q24.33 E1A binding protein p400 FLJ33915 12q24.33 hypothetical protein FLJ33915 DDX51 12q24.33 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 51 MGC3162 12q24.33 hypothetical protein MGC3162 GALNT9 12q24.33 UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 9 (GalNAc-T9) LOC390371 12 similar to proline rich protein 2 P2RX2 12q24.33 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 2 POLE 12q24.3 polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon PXMP2 12q24.33 peroxisomal membrane protein 2, 22kDa MGC5352 12q24.33 hypothetical protein MGC5352 GOLGA3 12q24.33 golgi autoantigen, golgin subfamily a, 3 CHFR 12q24.33 checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains LOC90462 12q24.33 hypothetical protein LOC90462 ZNF26 12q24.33 zinc finger protein 26 (KOX 20) ZNF84 12q24.33 zinc finger protein 84 (HPF2) ZNF140 12q24.32-q24.33 zinc finger protein 140 (clone pHZ-39) ZNF10 12q24.33 zinc finger protein 10 (KOX 1) ZNF268 5q11.2-24.3 zinc finger protein 268
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    28 - 5239 - 1050 - 1998 9693035
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousnervecranial nerve  highly
    Reproductivefemale systemovary  highly
     male systemprostate  highly
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    NervousPurkinje cell
    Nervouspyramidal cell
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • N-terminal proline/serine rich (PS) domain of ULK1 (amino acid 287-416) is required for ULK1-GABARAP protein interactions
  • a protein kinase domain
  • a single LIR motif that interacts with human ATG8 homologues
  • conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) controling the regulatory function and localization of the protein
    interspecies homolog to C.elegans UNC51- like kinase
    intraspecies homolog to ALK1
    homolog to ULK2
  • protein kinase superfamily
  • Ser/Thr protein kinase family
  • APG1/unc-51/ULK1 subfamily
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
  • ULK1 and the GABARAP proteins co-localized to many kind of neurons such as pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum
  • ULK1 is located on phagophores and/or autophagosomes, suggesting a role for ULK1 in later steps of autophagosome formation
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in axon growth and required for granule cell axon formation, via Ras-like GTPase signaling and through regulation of the RAB5-mediated endocytic pathways within developing axons
  • autophagy factor that functions together with ULK2 and RBCC1
  • playing an essential role in neurite extension of cerebellar granule cells
  • serine threonine kinase, which is a critical regulator of mitochondrial and ribosomal clearance during the final stages of erythroid maturation
  • play critical roles during the activation of autophagy
  • phosphorylates AMBRA1, releasing the autophagy core complex from dynein
  • having a cytoprotective function in neurons, and being an essential component of the autophagic signaling pathway
  • ULK1 and ULK2 are transcriptional targets of tumor suppressor TP53, and in response to DNA damage, are upregulated by TP53
  • ULK1 and ULK2 may mediate part of tumor suppression activity in mammalian cells and contribute to the efficacy of genotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs
  • ULK1/2 are required in the autophagy response to amino acid deprivation but not for autophagy induced by deprivation of glucose or inhibition of glucose metabolism
  • ULK1 and ULK2, are multifunctional proteins with roles in autophagy, neurite outgrowth, and vesicle transport
  • presence of an acidic residue adjacent to the core motif is crucial for the ability of ULK1 and ATG13 to interact with GABARAP
  • critical autophagy protein near the apex of the hierarchal regulatory pathway that receives signals from the master nutrient sensors MTOR and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)
  • ULK1 and ULK2 both function to support autophagy activation following nutrient starvation
  • negatively regulates IFNB production by phosphorylating TMEM173 S366
  • ULK1 is upregulated and translocates to fragmented mitochondria upon mitophagy induction by either hypoxia or mitochondrial uncouplers
  • PPM1D-ULK1 axis plays a pivotal role in genotoxic stress-induced autophagy
  • novel function of the USP1-ULK1 axis as a modulator of the switch between canonical and unconventional autophagy
  • autophagy-activating pathway that comprises GSK3A, GSK3B, KAT5, and ULK1
  • a component
  • component of the selective autophagy machinery that leads to the elimination of organelles in erythroid cells rather that an essential mechanistic component of autophagy
  • ULK1 forms a complex with AMPK, and AMPK activation results in ULK1 phosphorylation (ULK1-AMPK signaling cassette is involved in regulation of the autophagy machinery)
    small molecule
  • interacts with GABARAP (important to vesicle transport and axonal elongation in mammalian neurons) and GABARAPl2
  • PRKAA1, PRKAG1, PRKAB1 association with ULK1 plays an important role in autophagy induction, at least in part, by phosphorylation of raptor to lift the inhibitory effect of MTOR on the ULK1 autophagic complex
  • induces multisite phosphorylation of RAPTOR, and potentially contributes to MTOR inhibition through hindrance of substrate docking to RAPTOR
  • TAB2 also interacts with ATG13 and is phosphorylated by ULK1
  • ATG13 function is strictly depends on RB1CC1 binding, and has an additional function independent of ULK1/2 (
  • requirement of KAT5-mediated acetylation of ULK1 in serum deprivation–induced autophagy
  • TBC1D14 colocalizes and interacts with the autophagy kinase ULK1
  • GABARAPL2 targets Atg1/ULK1 to autophagosomes, where it may promote autophagosome maturation and/or fusion with vacuoles/lysosomes
  • ULK1 interacted most strongly with GABARAP and GABARAPL1, but it also interacted with GABARAPL2, MAP1LC3A, and MAP1LC3C
  • at mitochondria, ULK1 interacts with FUNDC1, phosphorylating it at serine 17, which enhances FUNDC1 binding to MAP1LC3A
  • SESN2 physically associates with Unc-51-like protein kinase 1 (ULK1) and SQSTM1 to form a complex in which both SESN2 and SQSTM1 become phosphorylated by ULK1 at multiple sites
  • FLCN-GABARAP association is modulated by the presence of either folliculin-interacting protein FNIP1 or FNIP2 and further regulated by ULK1
  • ULK1, a serine/threonine kinase critical for autophagy initiation, is a substrate of the CUL3-KLHL20 ubiquitin ligase
  • PPM1D interacts with and dephosphorylates ULK1 at Ser637 in a TP53-dependent manner and this dephosphorylation induces autophagy
  • SEC23A is a target of ULK1 phosphorylation
  • USP20 acts as a positive regulator of autophagy initiation through stabilizing ULK1
  • cell & other
    Phosphorylated by PRKAA1-dependent phosphorylation of ULK1 is critical for translocation of ULK1 to mitochondria and for mitophagy in response to hypoxic stress