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Symbol TXN contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 31-03-2012
HGNC name thioredoxin
HGNC id 12435
Location 9q31.3      Physical location : 113.006.309 - 113.018.778
Synonym name
  • ATL-derived factor
  • TXN delta 3
  • surface-associated sulphydryl protein
  • thioredoxin delta 3
  • Synonym symbol(s) TRX, TRX1, TRDX
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 12.47 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter (TATA box)
    Binding site   transcription factor
    text structure
  • contains consensus-binding sites for many transcription factors, such as forkhead box O3, NFE2L2 and cAMP response element-binding protein
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC392381 9 similar to large subunit ribosomal protein L36a LOC392382 9 similar to ribosomal protein L31 LOC347292 9q32 similar to ribosomal protein L36; 60S ribosomal protein L36 IKBKAP 9q31 inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein ACTL7B 9q31 actin-like 7B ACTL7A 9q31 actin-like 7A FLJ20457 9q32 hypothetical protein FLJ20457 CTNNAL1 9q31.2 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha-like 1 C9orf5 9q31 chromosome 9 open reading frame 5 EPB41L4B 9q22.1-q22.3 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 4B FLJ21596 9q32 hypothetical protein FLJ21596 PTPN3 9q31.2 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3 LOC347295 9q32 similar to DNA-binding protein B LOC389783 9 LOC389783 AKAP2 9q31-q33 a kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 2 PALM2 9q31-q33 paralemmin 2 TXN 9q31 thioredoxin LOC255220 9q32 similar to RIKEN cDNA 4930429J24 MUSK 9q31.3-q32 muscle, skeletal, receptor tyrosine kinase EDG2 9q31.3-q32 endothelial differentiation, lysophosphatidic acid G-protein-coupled receptor, 2 OR2K2 9q32 olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily K, member 2 OR2AR1P 3p24.1 olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily AR, member 1 pseudogene KIAA0368 9q22.3-q32 olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily AR, member 1 pseudogene ZNF483 9 zinc finger protein 483 LTB4DH 9q32 leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase LOC392383 9 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10120 GNG10 9q31-q32 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 FLJ32779 UGCG 9q31 UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase DKFZP761E1824 ROD1 9q32 ROD1 regulator of differentiation 1 (S. pombe) EPF5 9q33.1 EPF5 pseudogene LOC392384 9 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L32 MGC10940 9q33.1 hypothetical protein MGC10940 LOC389784 9 LOC389784 KIAA1958 9q33.1 KIAA1958
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 508 14 105 - 2010 20661909
    - - 826 - 85 - 2010 20661909
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Digestiveliver   highly
    Endocrinepancreas   lowly
    Nervousbrain   highly
    Reproductivemale systemprostate  highly
    Respiratorylung   lowly
    Urinarykidney   highly
    Visualeyelens  lowly
     eyeanterior segmentcornea lowly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • a thioredoxin domain
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    interspecies homolog to C.elegans B0228.5
    homolog to rattus Txn1 (90.29 pc)
    homolog to murine Txn1 (89.32 pc)
  • thioredoxin family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    basic FUNCTION
  • having a dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity
  • participating in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide
  • catalyzing dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions
  • implicated in thioredoxin system may be an effective defense system protecting the lens against oxidative stress
  • having a little role in apoptosis of malignant mesothelioma cells
  • enhanced HIF-1alpha protein amount and facilitated synthesis of HIF-1alpha by activating Akt, p70S6K, and eIF-4E, known to control cap-dependent translation
  • affects CD30-dependent changes in lymphocyte effector function
  • IFN-gamma-induced factor that may play a role in developing Th1 immunity and in the maintenance of immune homeostasis upon infection, radiation, and oxidative stress
  • multifunctional thiol protein that is critically involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis
  • has a role in suppressing senescence in normal cells in addition to its function as a redox-protective protein
  • reduce disulfide bonds and other thiol modifications in all cells using a CXXC motif
  • antiapoptotic and oncogenic potential of (secreted) TXN suggesting that it may exert effects in Tregs beyond redox regulation
  • TXN and TXN2 regulate the proliferation and survival of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and these processes are mediated by the activation of ERK1/2
  • important antioxidative enzyme in endothelial cells, required for apoptosis inhibition
  • denitrosylase that reverses NO inhibition of exocytosis
  • might regulate exocytosis in a variety of physiological settings, such as vascular inflammation, thrombosis, and insulin release
  • highly specific activator of oxidized human TGM2
  • cellular redox protein that plays a central role in maintaining the redox state and modulates redox-regulated gene expression, consequently protecting cells from oxidative stress
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    cell communication
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense , electron transport
  • antimicrobial humoral response (sensu Invertebrata)
  • control of cell proliferation
    signaling signal transduction
    cell-cell signaling
    a component part of actin-TXN complex that protects TXN from degradation and, thus, endothelial cells from apoptosis
    small molecule
  • cell surface TXN serves as one of the MIF binding molecules or MIF receptor component and inhibits MIF-mediated inflammatory signals
  • antioxidant function of PARK7 by increasing TXN expression via NFE2L2-mediated transcriptional induction
  • may play a broader role than previously believed that might include regulating transcription, RNA processing, and nuclear pore function in human cells
  • cell & other
    induced by PARK7, that induces the expression of thioredoxin (TXN)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • may serve as a biomarker of subcellular redox imbalance in prostate cancer
  • Therapy target