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FLASH GENE
Symbol TXN contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 31-03-2015
HGNC name thioredoxin
HGNC id 12435
Location 9q31.3      Physical location : 113.006.309 - 113.018.778
Synonym name
  • ATL-derived factor
  • TXN delta 3
  • surface-associated sulphydryl protein
  • thioredoxin delta 3
  • Synonym symbol(s) TRX, TRX1, TRDX
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 12.47 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter (TATA box)
    Binding site   transcription factor
    text structure
  • contains consensus-binding sites for many transcription factors, such as forkhead box O3, NFE2L2 and cAMP response element-binding protein
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    5 - 508 14 105 - 2010 20661909
    - - 826 - 85 - 2010 20661909
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Digestiveliver   highly
    Endocrinepancreas   lowly
    Nervousbrain   highly
    Reproductivemale systemprostate  highly
    Respiratorylung   lowly
    Urinarykidney   highly
    Visualeyelens  lowly
     eyeanterior segmentcornea lowly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularendocrine 
    Epithelialsecretoryglandularexocrine 
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a thioredoxin domain
  • mono polymer homomer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to C.elegans B0228.5
    homolog to rattus Txn1 (90.29 pc)
    homolog to murine Txn1 (89.32 pc)
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • thioredoxin family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm
    basic FUNCTION
  • having a dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity
  • participating in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide
  • catalyzing dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions
  • implicated in thioredoxin system may be an effective defense system protecting the lens against oxidative stress
  • having a little role in apoptosis of malignant mesothelioma cells
  • enhanced HIF-1alpha protein amount and facilitated synthesis of HIF-1alpha by activating Akt, p70S6K, and eIF-4E, known to control cap-dependent translation
  • affects CD30-dependent changes in lymphocyte effector function
  • IFN-gamma-induced factor that may play a role in developing Th1 immunity and in the maintenance of immune homeostasis upon infection, radiation, and oxidative stress
  • multifunctional thiol protein that is critically involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis
  • has a role in suppressing senescence in normal cells in addition to its function as a redox-protective protein
  • reduce disulfide bonds and other thiol modifications in all cells using a CXXC motif
  • antiapoptotic and oncogenic potential of (secreted) TXN suggesting that it may exert effects in Tregs beyond redox regulation
  • TXN and TXN2 regulate the proliferation and survival of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and these processes are mediated by the activation of ERK1/2
  • important antioxidative enzyme in endothelial cells, required for apoptosis inhibition
  • denitrosylase that reverses NO inhibition of exocytosis
  • might regulate exocytosis in a variety of physiological settings, such as vascular inflammation, thrombosis, and insulin release
  • highly specific activator of oxidized human TGM2
  • cellular redox protein that plays a central role in maintaining the redox state and modulates redox-regulated gene expression, consequently protecting cells from oxidative stress
  • oxidoreductase activities of TXNDC17 complement those of TXN and must therefore be considered for the full understanding of enzymatic control of cellular thiols and nitrosothiols
  • the catalytic site of TXN interacts with MAP3K5-TXN-binding domain(TBD) region containing cysteine C200 and the oxidative stress induces intramolecular disulfide bond formation within MAP3K5-TBD
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    cell communication
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense , electron transport
    text
  • antimicrobial humoral response (sensu Invertebrata)
  • control of cell proliferation
  • PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    cell-cell signaling
    a component part of actin-TXN complex that protects TXN from degradation and, thus, endothelial cells from apoptosis
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • TXNIP
  • cell surface TXN serves as one of the MIF binding molecules or MIF receptor component and inhibits MIF-mediated inflammatory signals
  • TXNDC17 inhibits the TNF-induced NFKB1 activation to a greater extent than TXN
  • antioxidant function of PARK7 by increasing TXN expression via NFE2L2-mediated transcriptional induction
  • may play a broader role than previously believed that might include regulating transcription, RNA processing, and nuclear pore function in human cells
  • TXN dissociates in response to oxidative stress allowing the MAP3K5 activation
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by PARK7, that induces the expression of thioredoxin (TXN)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • may serve as a biomarker of subcellular redox imbalance in prostate cancer
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS