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FLASH GENE
Symbol TRO contributors: mct/npt - updated : 20-05-2020
HGNC name trophinin
HGNC id 12326
Location Xp11.21      Physical location : 54.947.248 - 54.957.862
Synonym name
  • magphinin
  • MAGE superfamily protein
  • MAGE-D3 antigen
  • Synonym symbol(s) MAGED3, MAGE-d3, KIAA1114
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE
    text escaping X inactivation
    STRUCTURE 10.87 kb     13 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    13 - 2321 76.9 706 - 2012 22201876
  • also called magphinin beta
  • an additional segment in the 5' UTR and lacks an exon in the 3' coding region
  • 13 - 2329 76.9 706 - 2012 22201876
    also called magphinin beta
    13 - 4665 143.6 1431 - 2012 22201876
    11 - 3638 - 962 - 2012 22201876
    12 - 3515 - 1034 - 2012 22201876
    12 - 1107 - 309 - 2012 22201876
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousbrain    
    reproductiveepididymis    
    Reproductivefemale systemuterus    Homo sapiens
     male systemtestis   
    Urinarykidney     Mus musculus
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductiveepithelial cell Homo sapiens
    Reproductivegerm cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo, pregnancy
    Text
  • in placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface (Suzuki 1999)
  • in trophectoderm cells of embryos
  • PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a cytoplasmic N-terminal domain followed by
  • a unique decapeptide repeats
  • eight predicted transmembrane domains
  • an intracellular N-terminal region
  • 3 hydrophilic regions
  • 69 tandem repeats of decapeptide sequences
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Maged1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • MAGE protein family
  • CATEGORY adhesion
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • mediating apical cell adhesion between trophoblastic cells and luminal epithelial cells of the endometrium and is implicated in the initial attachment during the process of embryo implantation
  • homophilic adhesion molecule involved in blastocyst implantation (Baba 2007)
  • cell adhesion molecule potentially involved in human embryo implantation (Fukuda 2008)
  • during embryo implantation, trophinin mediates cell adhesion by homophilic binding at the apical surfaces of trophectoderm and endometrium (Sugihara 2008)
  • is likely a single transmembrane domain protein utilizing the first hydrophobic decapeptide repeats near the N-terminus to span the membrane
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • interacting with tastin and bystin
  • interacting with PRKCD (Trophinin-mediated cell adhesion induces apoptosis of human endometrial epithelial cells through PRKCD)
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in advanced testicular germ cell tumors (Nagahara 2010)
    constitutional     --over  
    in primary hepatic tumor, but neither in the adjacent non-tumorous tissue from the same patient nor normal liver tissue
    tumoral     --over  
    leads to a more invasive phenotype and metastatic potential in human gallbladder cancer
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • potential diagnostic factor of human liver cancer
  • Marker
  • independent biomarker for identifying tumor-initiating cells (TICs) populations that could be broadly applied to the heterogeneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subtypes
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS