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FLASH GENE
Symbol TPX2 contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 12-11-2009
HGNC name TPX2, microtubule-associated protein homolog (Xenopus laevis)
HGNC id 1249
Location 20q11.21      Physical location : 30.326.903 - 30.389.603
Synonym name
  • chromosome 20 open reading frame 2
  • chromosome 20 open reading frame 1
  • preferentially expressed in colorectal cancer
  • restricted expression proliferation associated protein 100
  • targeting protein for XKLP2
  • differentially expressed in cancerous and non-cancerous
  • lung cells 2
    Synonym symbol(s) DIL-2, repp86, DIL2, P100, FLS353, C20orf2, C20orf1, FLS353, HCTP4
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 62.70 kb     18 Exon(s)
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Map pter - D20S182 - TPX2 - D20S106 - qter
    Authors GeneMap (98)
    Physical map
    LOC391241 20 similar to Soggy-1 protein precursor (SGY-1) LOC149935 20q11.21 similar to CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 3; CDK5 activator-binding protein C53; ischemic heart CDK5 activator-binding protein C53 RPL31P3 20p11-q11 ribosomal protein L31 pseudogene 3 DEFB118 20q11.1-q11.22 defensin, beta 118 DEFB119 20q11.1 defensin, beta 119 DEFB123 20q11.1 defensin, beta 123 REM 20q11.1 RAS (RAD and GEM)-like GTP-binding LOC388794 20 similar to dJ1093G12.6 (A novel protein) HM13 20q11.21 histocompatibility (minor) 13 ID1 20q11 inhibitor of DNA binding 1, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein COX4I2 20q11.21 cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 2 BCL2L1 20q11.1 BCL2-like 1 TPX2 20q11.2 TPX2, microtubule-associated protein homolog (Xenopus laevis) MYLK2 20q13.31 myosin light chain kinase 2, skeletal muscle FKHL18 20q11.1-q11.2 forkhead-like 18 (Drosophila) DUSP15 20 dual specificity phosphatase-like 15 LOC164395 20q11.21 hypothetical protein LOC164395 C20orf126 20q11.21 chromosome 20 open reading frame 126 LOC343702 20q11.21 similar to dJ310O13.4 (novel protein similar to predicted C. elegans and C. intestinalis proteins) C20orf160 20q11.2 chromosome 20 open reading frame 160 HCK 20q11.21 hemopoietic cell kinase TM9SF4 20q11.21 transmembrane 9 superfamily protein member 4 RPL24P1 20q11 ribosomal protein L24 pseudogene 1 TSPYL3 20q11.1 TSPY-like 3 PLAGL2 20q11.1 pleiomorphic adenoma gene-like 2 POFUT1 20q11 protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 KIF3B 20p11.2-q11.21 kinesin family member 3B ASXL1 20q11 additional sex combs like 1 (Drosophila) DKFZP566G1424 20q11.1-q11.23 hypothetical protein DKFZp566G1424 C20orf112 20q11.1-q11.23 chromosome 20 open reading frame 112 LOC284804 20q11.21 hypothetical protein LOC284804 LOC149950 20q11.21 hypothetical LOC149950
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    18 - 3685 - 747 - 2008 18663142
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver   highly
     mouthtongue  highly
    Lymphoid/Immunethymus   highly
     tonsils   highly
    Reproductivemale systemtestis  highly
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Respiratoryepithelial cell
    cell lineage
    cell lines cancerous (high expression)
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period
    cell cycle     cell cycle, S, G2, M
    Text restricted to cell cycle phases, S, G2 and M
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a putative ATP/GTP binding site motif
  • a fragment (AAs 1-43) has been shown to be sufficient for binding, kinase activation, and protection from dephosphorylation
  • conjugated PhosphoP
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY DNA associated
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule,mitotic spindle
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleolus
    text
  • diffuse nuclear distribution at the onset of S phase, persisting through G2 phase and relocating to the mitotic spindle in M phase
  • colocalises with apoptotic microtubules
  • basic FUNCTION
  • spindle assembly factor, indispensable for cell division
  • required for the formation of functional mitotic spindle
  • AURKA activator TPX2 is required for microtubule nucleation from chromosomes as well as for spindle bipolarity
  • having a second AURKA-independent function that is required to bipolarize spindles
  • important similarities with the process of RanGTP- and TPX2-mediated mitotic spindle formation
  • poleward transport requires the C terminus of TPX2, a domain that interacts with KIF11, and down-regulates its microtubule nucleating activity near kinetochores and links microtubules generated at kinetochores to dynein for incorporation into the spindle
  • microtubule-binding protein that plays a major role in regulating the activity and localisation of Aurora-A in mitotic cells
  • novel function of TPX2 in regulating the location and activity of the mitotic motor KIF11
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule nucleotide,
  • ATP
  • GTP
  • protein
  • with AURKA (enhancing AURKA activity during mitosis)
  • interacts with the spindle assembly factors dynein and HMMR (like TPX2, HMMR expression is up-regulated during mitosis)
  • TPX2 binding with AURKA decreases the size and accessibility of a hydrophobic pocket, adjacent to the ATP site, to inhibitors
  • KIF11 interacts with the spindle assembly factor TPX2 (this interaction was required for kinetochore fiber formation and contributed to KIF11 localization to spindle microtubules but not spindle poles)
  • PKD1 cytoplasmic tail associates with the transcription factors TPX2 and STAT6
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    correlate with the malignant condition and might be linked to the increased or abnormal cell proliferation in human oral squamous cell carcinomas
    tumoral     --over  
    in prostate cancer tissues
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS