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FLASH GENE
Symbol TOP2B contributors: mct - updated : 16-01-2013
HGNC name topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa
HGNC id 11990
Location 3p24.2      Physical location : 25.639.474 - 25.705.788
Synonym name
  • DNA gyrase, beta
  • Synonym symbol(s) TOPIIB, top2beta
    EC.number 5.99.1.3
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 66.31 kb     36 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    text structure
  • two functional NR4A2 binding sites in the proximal TOP2B promoter
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC389099 3 similar to RIKEN cDNA B830010L13 gene HMG1L5 3p24 high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 1-like 5 LOC391519 3 similar to SALL4B FLJ25157 3p24.2 hypothetical protein FLJ25157 UBE2E1 3p24.1 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E 1 (UBC4/5 homolog, yeast) KBRAS1 3p24.1 I-kappa-B-interacting Ras-like protein 1 RPL15 3p12-p11.2 ribosomal protein L15 NR1D2 3p24.3-p24.2 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 2 LOC391520 3 similar to nucleolar phosphoprotein B23.2 - rat THRB 3p24 thyroid hormone receptor, beta (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog 2, avian) LOC285324 3p24.1 similar to Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) (RAR-epsilon) (HBV-activated protein) LOC391521 3 similar to Cofilin, non-muscle isoform LOC51036 3p24 retinoic acid receptor-beta associated open reading frame RARB 3p24.3 retinoic acid receptor, beta TOP2B 3p24 topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa LOC391522 3 similar to Cysteine-rich protein 1 (Cysteine-rich intestinal protein) (CRIP) NGLY1 3p24.1 N-glycanase 1 LOC246135 3p24.1 TBP-associated factor 9-like pseudogene FLJ12409 3p24.1 hypothetical protein FLJ12409 FLJ20604 3p24.1 hypothetical protein FLJ20604 LOC285326 3p24.1 hypothetical protein LOC285326 LOC391523 3 similar to Ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase (Ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase) (HUSSY-17) VENTX2P4 3p24.1 VENT-like homeobox 2 pseudogene 4 LRP15 3p24 hypothetical protein LRP15 FLJ32685 3p24.1 hypothetical protein FLJ32685 SLC4A7 3p22 solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 7 LOC285321 3p23 similar to tropomyosin 4 EOMES 3p21.3-p21.2 eomesodermin homolog (Xenopus laevis) MGC61571 3p23 hypothetical protein MGC61571 AZ2 3p23 5-azacytidine induced gene 2 LOC152098 3p23 hypothetical protein LOC152098 FLJ33651 3p23 hypothetical protein FLJ33651 LOC131572 3p23 similar to MEST LOC389100 3 LOC389100 RBMS3 3p24.3-p23 RNA binding motif, single stranded interacting protein
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text
  • two alternative splicing transcripts but the second variant has not yet been fully described
  • identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    36 - 5189 182 1621 abundantly expressed in cells that have undergone the final cell division and are committed to differentiation into neuronal cells 2010 20882068
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   moderately
    Nervousbrain   predominantly Homo sapiensAdult
    Urinarybladder   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow  highly
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • three functional domains associated with energy transduction, DNA-breakage reunion activity
  • a C terminal nuclear export signal (NLS), that determine its isoform-specific functions in proliferating cells
  • conjugated PhosphoP
    mono polymer homomer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Top2b (96.4 pc)
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • type II topoisomerase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleolus
    text
  • three different topoisomerases have been identified in mitochondria: TOP1MT, TOP3A and a truncated form of TOP2B
  • basic FUNCTION
  • acting as a DNA topoisomerase II
  • involved in the breakage and rejoining of double strand of DNA
  • relaxing both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA
  • target of several drugs, widely used in the treatment of human cancers
  • regulating differentiation
  • a critical role of TopIIbeta in neurite outgrowth
  • removes supercoils and catenanes generated during DNA metabolic processes such as transcription and replication
  • TOP2A is essential for cell proliferation, whereas TOP2B is required only for aspects of nerve growth and brain development
  • activates a subset of neuronal genes that are repressed in AT-rich genomic environment
  • involved in transcriptional activation of certain genes, which assumes accurate targeting of the enzyme to its action site
  • involved in the processes of neuronal differentiation, migration, axon guidance
  • involved in DNA strand break formation in elongating spermatids
  • required for lamina-specific targeting of retinal ganglion cell axons and dendrites
  • role, at least indirect, in the repair of ENU-mediated strand breaks via base excision repair pathway including the activities of uracil DNA-glycosylase (UDG) and ligase (LIG)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    nucleotide, replication
    nucleotide, repair
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • ATPase component of the topoisomerase II
  • INTERACTION
    DNA binding
    RNA
    small molecule nucleotide,
  • ATP
  • protein
  • associates stoichiometrically with HNRNPU in the presence of RNA
  • functional relationship between the DNA strand break-generating activity of TOP2B and the DNA strand break-dependent activation of PARP1 and PARP2 that in turn inhibit TOP2B
  • strong interaction with XRCC6 as well as PARP1 suggesting that TOP2B is associated both in XRCC6 and PARP-dependent pathways in DSBs repair in primary neurons
  • might be a down-stream target of NR4A2, which might influence the processes of axon genesis in dopaminergic neurons via the regulation of TOP2B expression
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
    in Top2b null mice, significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantial nigra and lack of neurites along the nigro-striatal pathway