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FLASH GENE
Symbol TNMD contributors: mct/npt - updated : 17-01-2018
HGNC name tenomodulin
HGNC id 17757
Location Xq22.1      Physical location : 99.839.789 - 99.854.880
Synonym name
  • myodulin protein
  • BRICHOS domain containing 4
  • tendin
  • chondromodulin I-like protein
  • chondromodulin-IB
  • Synonym symbol(s) TEM, LOC64102, CHM1L, BRICD4
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 15.09 kb     7 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    LOC392507 X similar to HSPC129 protein LOC158656 Xq22.1 similar to 40S ribosomal protein SA (P40) (34/67 kDa laminin receptor) (Colon carcinoma laminin-binding protein) (NEM/1CHD4) (Multidrug resistance-associated protein MGr1-Ag) PCDH19 Xq13.3 protocadherin 19 TNMD Xq21.33-q23 protocadherin 19 TM4SF6 Xq22 transmembrane 4 superfamily member 6 SRPUL Xq21.33-q23 sushi-repeat protein SYTL4 Xq21.33 synaptotagmin-like 4 (granuphilin-a) LOC392508 X similar to Double-strand-break repair protein rad21 homolog (hHR21) (Nuclear matrix protein 1) (NXP-1) (SCC1 homolog) CSTF2 Xq22.2-q22.3 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa NOX1 Xq22 NADPH oxidase 1 LOC389877 X similar to Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (Helix-destabilizing protein) (Single-strand binding protein) (hnRNP core protein A1) (HDP-1) (Topoisomerase-inhibitor suppressed) LOC347424 Xq22.1 similar to TGF beta-inducible nuclear protein 1 (Hairy cell leukemia protein 1) (HUSSY-29) LOC286453 Xq22.1 similar to dJ341D10.1 (novel protein) LOC392509 X similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp761H079 isoform 1 FLJ12687 Xq22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ12687 FLJ14084 Xq22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ14084 FSHPRH1 Xq22 FSH primary response (LRPR1 homolog, rat) 1 LOC392510 X similar to 14-3-3 protein tau (14-3-3 protein theta) DRP2 Xq22 dystrophin related protein 2 TAF7L Xq22.1 TAF7-like RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 50kDa TIMM8A Xq22.1 translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog A (yeast) BTK Xq22.1-q22.2 Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase RPL36A Xq26.3-q27.3 ribosomal protein L36a GLA Xq22.11 galactosidase, alpha HNRPH2 Xq21.3-q22 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H2 (H') LOC389878 X LOC389878 MGC40053 Xq22.1 hypothetical protein MGC40053 LOC158948 Xq22.1 protein kinase C, iota pseudogene ALEX1 Xq21.33-q22.2 protein kinase C, iota pseudogene FLJ20811 Xq21.33-q22.3 hypothetical protein FLJ20811 ALEX3 Xq21.33-q22.2 ALEX3 protein ALEX2 Xq21.33-q22.2 ALEX2 protein GKP6 Xq22-q23 glycerol kinase pseudogene 6 NXF5 Xq22 nuclear RNA export factor 5 KIAA1789 Xq21 KIAA1789 protein
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 1360 37.1 317 skeletal muscle 2012 2270080
    - - - 20.3 - - 2012 2270080
    - - - 25.4 - - 2012 2270080
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart    
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectiveadipose  highly
    Connectivecartilage   
    Connectivedensetendon   Homo sapiens
    Connectivedenseligament   Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • an N-terminal transmembrane domain
  • a putative antiangiogenic domain with 8 cysteines
  • a BRICHOS domain
  • C-terminus of the protein co-localize with collagen I-type fibers in the extracellular matrix , and C-terminal hydrophobic domain, which is characterized by the eight Cys residues to form four disulfide bonds, may have an anti-angiogenic function
  • conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Chmi
    ortholog to murine tenomodulin
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • chondromodulin-1 family
  • CATEGORY regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm
    intracellular,nuclear envelope
    text type II transmembrane protein
    basic FUNCTION
  • antiangiogenic factor, expressed abundantly in the elastin-rich subendothelial outer layer (Kimura 2008)
  • may play a role in adipose tissue function (Saiki 2009)
  • inhibits angiogenesis in adipose tissue, but could have metabolic effects in addition to its role in angiogenesis (Saiki 2009)
  • with scleraxis (SCX), TNMD is a candidate marker gene for tenocytes
  • acts on the maturation or maintenance of the periodontal ligament (PDL) by positively regulating cell adhesion via its BRICHOS domain
  • acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity
  • specific marker of tendons and ligaments
  • is required for proper tendon tissue adaptation to endurance running
  • WNT/CTNNB1 decreased MKX and TNMD expressions without suppressing SCX expression in SCX-programmed tendon progenitors
  • important for tendon maturation, running performance and has key implications for the resident tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs)
  • is required for prevention of adipocyte accumulation and fibrovascular scar formation during early tendon healing
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development
    text regulatory of the development
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    in response to weight reduction (Saiki 2009)
    constitutional     --over  
    in adipose tissue of obese (Saiki 2009)
    constitutional     --over  
    significantly inhibited the differentiation towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in both bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs),and adipose derived stem cells (ASCs)
    constitutional     --over  
    in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI)
    constitutional     --low  
    loss of TNMD affects significantly the self-renewal and senescence properties, but not the multipotential of tendon stem/progenitor cells
    Susceptibility to type 2 diabetes
    Variant & Polymorphism other polymorphisms associated with adiposity and also with glucose metabolism impairment (Tolpannen 2007)
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • its loss-of -function in mice leads to a phenotype with distinct signs of premature aging on tissue and stem/progenitor cell levels