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Symbol TLR2 contributors: mct/npt - updated : 20-04-2016
HGNC name toll-like receptor 2
HGNC id 11848
Location 4q31.3      Physical location : 154.605.440 - 154.627.240
Synonym name
  • toll/interleukin 1 receptor-like 4
  • Drosophila transmembrane receptor Toll homolog 2
  • CD282 antigen
  • Synonym symbol(s) TIL4, CD282
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 21.80 kb     3 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text with two alternatively spliced variants, one expressed in lung, the other in heart, brain, muscle (Rock)
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    3 - 3417 - 784 - 1998 9435236
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductivefemale systemovary  highly Homo sapiens
    Respiratoryrespiratory tracttrachea  highly
    Skin/Tegumentskin     Homo sapiensFetal
    Urinarybladder   highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductiveepithelial cell Homo sapiens
    cell lineage myelomonocytic cells, dendritic cell precursors
    cell lines in benign conditions, epithelial tumors, and in ovarian cancer cell lines
    at STAGE
  • an extracellular part composed of 19 leucine-rich repeats (LRR)
  • a cysteine rich region
  • a transmembrane segment
  • a cytoplasmic domain, the TolN homology domain (TH), common to the Toll and IL1 receptor genes (also called TIR domain, Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor playing an important role in innate host defense signaling)
    interspecies homolog to Drosophila transmembrane receptor Toll,2
  • Toll-like receptor family
  • CATEGORY immunity/defense , receptor membrane
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
  • TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, and TLR10 are displayed on the plasma membrane where they are best available to contact bacterial and fungal cell wall constituents
  • basic FUNCTION
  • plays a central role for the response to a wide variety of microbial and endogenous danger signals
  • involved in innate immunity through the recruitment of MYD88
  • mediator of liposaccharide (LPS) induced response against Gram positive bacteria
  • significant role for in the occurrence of leprosy reversal reaction
  • can contribute to atherogenesis through transduction of inflammatory signals
  • role for TLR2 in atherosclerosis induced by atherogenic lipoproteins
  • as others Toll-like receptor (TLR), its stimulation plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of human B cells
  • initiates potent immune responses by recognizing diacylated and triacylated lipopeptides
  • key immune receptor in TLRs family with a large repertoire of ligands
  • required for morphine-induced neuronal cell death and apoptosis
  • TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, and TLR10, mediates immune responses to a variety of microbial cell wall components including lipoproteins and glycolipids
  • TLR2 has dual immune functions in the gut and TLR1 is a critical innate receptor for protective intestinal T(H)17 immunity
  • TLR1, when dimerized with TLR2, is a cell surface receptor that, upon recognition of bacterial lipoproteins, activates the innate immune system
  • TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 were expressed on the surface of B cells, monocytes and dendritic cells in a manner dependent on TLR-specific chaperone CNPY3
  • lipopeptides elicit TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 signaling in the endolysosomes, but not on the cell surface
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS immunity/defense
    text apoptosis of infected cells, pathogen recognition
    signaling signal transduction
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway, stress activated MAP kinase p38 pathway
    a component
    small molecule
  • activating NFkappa B in response to Gram+ bacteria
  • interaction with CD14 through the extracellular Toll-like receptor 2 domain
  • TLR4 requires myeloid differentiation (LY96), and both TLR2 and TLR4 signal need myeloid differentiation factor (MYD88)
  • RGS2 inhibits STAT3-mediated NOX1 transcription, and can itself be repressed by TLR2
  • MAP2K1 negatively regulates TLR2 signaling in endothelial cell, MAP2K1 promotes TLR2 signaling in monocytes
  • NOD1 cooperates with TLR2 to enhance T cell receptor-mediated activation in CD8 T cells
  • activation of PRKCH and PLD2 signaling pathway is an important mechanism for regulation of TLR2-induced ABCA1 expression
  • not only TLR4 signaling, but also CD180 appears to be an essential accessory for immune responses through TLR2 signaling
  • activation of TLR2 in the skin by commensal microbial products prevents excessive inflammation by blocking downstream TLR3 signaling
  • TICAM2 is required for the TLR2-dependent movement of MYD88 to endosomes following ligand engagement
  • SLC16A4 is required for macrophage activation upon TLR2 and TLR4 stimulations
  • MAPK7 mediates proinflammatory responses in primary human cells in response to stimulation of TLR2
  • PRG4 binds to TLR2 and TLR4 and this binding mediates a novel anti-inflammatory role for PRG4
  • activation of human mast cells by CAMP could be modified by TLR2 ligands and the function of human mast cells could be switched from allergic reactions to innate immune response
  • activation of TLR2 stimulates foam cell formation, which is a key early event in the process of atherosclerosis
  • CSF3 downregulates TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in human monocytes
  • critical role of SPI1 in the regulation of TLR1, 2, 4 and of CD14
  • cell & other
    activated by MYD88
    induced by by inflammatory stimuli in alveolar macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin (IL)-1beta, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    hypoxia (coordinated induction of TLR2 and TLR6 during hypoxia suggesting tissue hypoxia in transcriptional adaptation of innate immune responses during acute infection or inflammation)
    Other recruited to macrophage phagosome in association with TLR6 where they recognize peptidoglycan, a gram+ pathogen component
    negative role of IMPDH2 in TLR2 signaling
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional       loss of function
    is capable of preventing opioids-induced damage to neurons
  • to colorectal cancer
  • to leprosy (OMIM 246300)
  • to acute rheumatic fever(ARF)
  • to tuberculosis
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP , insertion/deletion , other
  • GT polymorphism associated with colorectal cancer
  • Arg753Arg genotype was significantly decreased in the entire group of ARF cases (protecting against ARF)
  • SNP Arg753Gln increasing the risk for the development of tuberculosis
  • Candidate gene
    Therapy target