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Symbol TIMELESS contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 21-05-2015
HGNC name timeless homolog (Drosophila)
HGNC id 11813
Location 12q13.2      Physical location : 56.810.156 - 56.843.200
Synonym name timeless homolog
Synonym symbol(s) TIM, HTIM, TIM1, FLJ12640, FLJ20714, TIMELESS1
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 33.04 kb     29 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Physical map
ZNFN1A4 12q13 zinc finger protein, subfamily 1A, 4 (Eos) RPS26 12q14 ribosomal protein S26 ERBB3 12q13.3 v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian) PA2G4 12q13 proliferation-associated 2G4, 38kDa RPL41 12q14 ribosomal protein L41 FLJ14451 12q13.13 hypothetical protein FLJ14451 MBC2 12q13.13 hypothetical protein FLJ14451 MLC1SA 12q13.13 hypothetical protein FLJ14451 MYL6 12q12 myosin, light polypeptide 6, alkali, smooth muscle and non-muscle SMARCC2 12q13-q14 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 2 RNF41 12q13.13 ring finger protein 41 MGC2731 12q13.13 hypothetical protein MGC2731 SLC39A5 12q13.3 solute carrier family 39 (metal ion transporter), member 5 FLJ34236 12q13.13 hypothetical protein FLJ34236 FLJ32452 12q13.13 hypothetical protein FLJ32452 CS 12p11-qter citrate synthase TMEM4 12q15 transmembrane protein 4 USP52 12q13.2-q13.3 ubiquitin specific protease 52 APOF 12q13.13 apolipoprotein F IL23A 12q13.2-q13.3 interleukin 23, alpha subunit p19 STAT2 17q11.1-q22 signal transducer and activator of transcription 2, 113kDa LOC390331 12 similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10560 TIMELESS 12q12-q13 timeless homolog (Drosophila) MIP 12q13 major intrinsic protein of lens fiber LOC283377 12q13.13 hypothetical protein LOC283377 GA 12q13 hypothetical protein LOC283377 LOC338801 12q13.13 similar to 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial precursor (Hsp60) (60 kDa chaperonin) (CPN60) (Heat shock protein 60) (HSP-60) (Mitochondrial matrix protein P1) (P60 lymphocyte protein) (HuCHA60) RBMS2 12q12 RNA binding motif, single stranded interacting protein 2 BAZ2A 12q24.3-qter bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 2A
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
29 - 5154 - 1208 - 1998 9891984
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Endocrinepancreas   highly
Lymphoid/Immunethymus   highly
Nervousbrainforebraincerebral cortex   Homo sapiens
 brainlimbic system    Homo sapiens
Reproductivemale systemtestis  highly
 male systemprostate  highly
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Connectivebone  moderately
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion highly in lymph
physiological period pregnancy
Text highly in placenta
  • N-terminus is sufficient for interaction with CRY1 and CHEK1 as well for homodimerization
  • protein-protein interaction with PER and cytoplasmic localization
  • C-terminus necessary for nuclear localization
  • conjugated PhosphoP
    mono polymer homomer , heteromer , dimer , complex
    interspecies homolog to rattus Timeless (83.1 pc)
    homolog to murine Timeless (84.7 pc)
  • Timeless family
  • CATEGORY regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • is expressed in neuronal tissues in a spatiotemporally regulated manner and involved in developmental stage-specific neuronal functions
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in circadian oscillation autoregulation and in regulation of meiotic chromosome cohesion
  • inhibiting CLOCK-BMAL1-induced transactivation
  • may play an important role in epithelial cell morphogenesis and formation of branching tubules
  • required for CK2 effects on PER, and is an important mediator of CK2 effects on circadian rhythms
  • TIMELESS-TIPIN complex stabilizes replication forks both by preventing the accumulation of ssDNA upstream of ATR-CHEK1 function and by facilitating phosphorylation of CHEK1 by ATR
  • required for ATM-dependent activation of CHEK2 and G2/M checkpoint arrest
  • TIMELESS has a function in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) that is independent of the TIMELESS-TIPIN complex, even though the abundance of TIMELESS is reduced when TIPIN is targeted for depletion
  • coordinates mitotic kinase activation with termination of DNA replication
  • functions together with TERF1 to prevent fork collapse at telomere repeat DNA and ensure stable maintenance of telomere length and integrity
  • implicated in circadian rhythms as well as cell cycle control and embryonic development
  • TIMELESS is responsible for the interaction between the TIMELESS-TIPIN and Mcm complexes
  • TIMELESS-TIPIN complex plays important roles in S phase progression, stabilization of stalled replication forks, and checkpoint activation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS circadian , development
  • branching morphogenesis of a tube
  • lung development
  • morphogenesis of an epithelium
    a component
  • component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, BMAL1 or BMAL2, CSKN1D and/or CSNK1E, and the PER proteins
  • WDHD1-CLSPN-TIPIN-TIMELESS complex, which coordinate DNA unwinding with polymerase alpha-, delta-, and epsilon- dependent DNA polymerization are constituents of the Replisome
  • TIMELESS-TIPIN complex, a component of the replication fork machinery, plays a role in replication checkpoint activation and stabilization of the replication fork
    small molecule
  • interacting directly with PER1 and PER2 and PER3
  • binding CRY1, CRY2, CHK1, ATR and ATRIP
  • TIMELESS protein associates with S phase replication checkpoint proteins CLSPN and TIPIN , and plays an important role in maintaining replication fork stability at physical barriers, like centromeres, telomeres and ribosomal DNA repeats, as well as at termination sites
  • is associated with Shelterin components TERF1 and TERF2
  • SH3 domain-binding protein and substrate for several members of the SRC protein-tyrosine kinase family, including FYN, SRC
  • TIMELESS-TIPIN complex might couple DNA unwinding and DNA synthesis by affecting the biochemical properties of these replisome proteins
  • cell & other
    inhibited by by siRNA (inhibition enhancing the cytotoxic effectiveness of chemotherapeutic drugs known to activate DNA response pathways within cancer cells)
    Other regulated by the cell cycle (high levels in S, G(2) and M phases, with highest level in S phase and low expression in G(0) and G(1) phases)
    regulated by CK2 (role for CK2 in TIMELESS regulation)
    corresponding disease(s)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
  • potential biomarker of cancer susceptibility and prognostic outcome
  • Therapy target