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FLASH GENE
Symbol TGM4 contributors: mct - updated : 05-06-2019
HGNC name transglutaminase 4 (prostate)
HGNC id 11780
Location 3p21.31      Physical location : 44.916.097 - 44.956.086
Synonym symbol(s) TGP, hTGP, FLJ26776
EC.number 2.3.2.13
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 39.99 kb     14 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked   status provisional
Physical map
FLJ36157 3p21.32 FLJ36157 protein DKFZp313N0621 3p21.32 hypothetical protein DKFZp313N0621 LOC285344 3p21.32 similar to hypothetical protein MG11009.4 ZNF445 3p21.32 zinc finger protein 445 LOC285346 3p21.32 hypothetical protein LOC285346 ZNF167 3p22-p21 zinc finger protein 167 LOC389115 3 hypothetical gene supported by BC009982; NM_015134 FLJ36870 3p21.32 hypothetical protein FLJ36870 ZNF197 3p21.2-p21.1 zinc finger protein 197 ZNF35 3p21 zinc finger protein 35 (clone HF.10) LOC391531 3 similar to zinc finger protein 347; zinc finger 1111 LOC389116 3 hypothetical gene supported by AL136896; NM_014011 ZNF502 3p21.32 zinc finger protein 502 ZNF501 3p21.32 zinc finger protein 501 KIAA1143 3p21.32 KIAA1143 protein KNSL7 3p21.33 kinesin-like 7 MGC29956 3p21.32 hypothetical protein MGC29956 LOC391532 3 similar to peptidyl-Pro cis trans isomerase TGM4 3p22-p21.3 transglutaminase 4 (prostate) FLJ20209 3p21.32 hypothetical protein FLJ20209 ZDHHC3 3p21.32 zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 3 KIAA0116 3p21 Homo sapiens KIAA0116 protein (KIAA0116), mRNA. TNA 3p21.3 tetranectin (plasminogen binding protein) CDCP1 3p24.3-p22.1 tetranectin (plasminogen binding protein) RIS1 3p21.3 tetranectin (plasminogen binding protein) LARS2 3p21.3 leucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial LIMD1 3p21.3 LIM domains containing 1 SACM1L 3p21.3 SAC1 suppressor of actin mutations 1-like (yeast)
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
14 - 3027 - 684 - 2010 2017714
  • TGM4-M1
  • - splicing - - - - 2010 2017714
    splice (intron 1) + in frame insertion antisense Alu
    15 splicing - - 723 in 56p100 of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) 2010 2017714
  • can encode the polypeptide composed of 723 amino acid residues, indicating that transglutaminase 4L has 45 additional amino acid residues
  • down-regulation of transglutaminase 4, especially transglutaminase 4L, is probably associated with cancer development and progression
  • 14 splicing - - - - 2010 2017714
  • a 4 bp segment (GTGA) insertion, insertion leading to a +2 frameshift, resulting in premature termination after six amino acids
  • - splicing - - 91 - 2010 2017714
  • 107 nucleotides were deleted from the transglutaminase 4-M1
  • encode a prematurely terminated protein consisting of 91 amino acid residues
  • EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Reproductivemale systemprostate    Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
    SP1 binding site essential to basal activity
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY TGase family
    CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,Golgi
    basic FUNCTION
  • transglutaminase involved in reproductive process and processed pseudogene in the promoter containing a cyclophilin A
  • plays a pivotal role in the interaction between endothelial cells and prostate cancer cells, an action which is independent of the ROCK pathway
  • catalyzes calcium-dependent posttranslational modification of proteins
  • TGM4 antagonizes the anti-tumour action of MDA-7/IL-24 in prostate cancer
  • enhance various biological properties of prostate cancer cells, e.g., cell-matrix adhesion, invasiveness and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition
  • is a prostatic secretory molecule with critical role in male reproduction
  • is a gene involved in the AR signaling pathway
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • regulation of TGM4 gene depends mainly on retinoic acid (RA)
  • RARG plays a major role in the regulation of TGM4 gene and presence of the AR, but not its transcriptional transactivation activity, is critical for TGM4 transcription
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    in the Prostate carcinoma compared to the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • may serve as a potential predictor of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer
  • Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • male mice knockouts for transglutaminase IV (Tgm4) fail to form a copulatory plug