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Symbol TDG contributors: mct/npt - updated : 20-06-2017
HGNC name thymine-DNA glycosylase
HGNC id 11700
Location 12q23.3      Physical location : 104.359.592 - 104.382.655
Synonym name G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase
Synonym symbol(s) TNG, TPG, hTDG
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 23.06 kb     10 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Map cen - D12S865 - D12S1216E - TDG - D12S806 - D12S387 - qter
Physical map
CHPT1 12q11 choline phosphotransferase 1 SYCP3 12q24.2-q24.3 synaptonemal complex protein 3 MGC4170 12q23.3 synaptonemal complex protein 3 LOC387880 12 similar to 10 KD HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN, MITOCHONDRIAL (HSP10) (10 KD CHAPERONIN) (CPN10) FLJ11259 12q23.3 hypothetical protein FLJ11259 LOC390353 12 similar to ribosomal protein L9 CGI-116 12q23.3 CGI-116 protein Nup37 12q23.3 nucleoporin Nup37 FLJ20641 12q23.3 hypothetical protein FLJ20641 PMCH 12q23.1 pro-melanin-concentrating hormone IGF1 12q23.1 insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C) PAH 12q23.1 phenylalanine hydroxylase ASCL1 12q23.1 achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Drosophila) FLJ25323 12q23.3 FLJ25323 protein STAB2 12q33.3 stabilin 2 TU12B1-TY 12q22-q23.1 TU12B1-TY protein LOC253724 12q23.3 hypothetical LOC253724 LOC283350 12q23.3 similar to cDNA sequence BC030307 TRA1 12q23.1 tumor rejection antigen (gp96) 1 LOC387881 12 LOC387881 TDG 12q22-24.1 thymine-DNA glycosylase LOC83468 12q gycosyltransferase HCF-2 12q23.3 host cell factor 2 NFYB 12q22-q23 nuclear transcription factor Y, beta LOC390354 12 similar to ribosomal protein L18a; 60S ribosomal protein L18a TXNRD1 12q23-q24 thioredoxin reductase 1 CHST11 12q23.2-q23.3 carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 DKFZP434K0427 12q24.11 hypothetical protein DKFZp434K0427 LOC121054 12q24.11 similar to Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 (Cytokeratin 18) (K18) (CK 18) MGC40397 12q24.11 hypothetical protein MGC40397 FLJ38508 12q24.11 hypothetical protein FLJ38508 KIAA1033 12q24.11 KIAA1033 protein DIP13B 12q24.1 DIP13 beta LOC387882 12 hypothetical gene supported by AJ311377; BC013920 LOC390355 12 similar to dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 11; situs inversus viscerum; dynein, axon, heavy chain 11 LOC245718 12q24.11 similar to heat shock 70kD protein binding protein; progesterone receptor-associated p48 protein; putative tumor suppressor ST13; Hsp70-interacting protein ARK5 12q24.11 AMP-activated protein kinase family member 5 LOC341378 12q24.11 similar to thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11; thyroid receptor interacting protein 11
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
10 - 3251 - 410 - 2017 28318075
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestiveintestinesmall intestine   
Reproductivemale systemprostate   
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow   
cell lineage
cell lines
  • interacting domain mapped to AAs 67-110, and Val74 plays an important role in the TDG-HUS1 interaction
  • TDG/MUG DNA glycosylase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm,nuclear bodies,PML
    basic FUNCTION
  • plays a central role in cellular defense against genetic mutation caused by the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine
  • key DNA glycosylase in the base excision repair (BER) pathway that repairs deaminated cytosines and 5-methyl-cytosines (Guan 2007)
  • playing a central role in cellular defense against genetic mutation caused by the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine
  • DNA repair enzyme specific for G/T mismatches, plays a role in the regulation of gene expression through its physical interaction with transcription factors (Kim 2008)
  • dual role for TDG in promoting proper epigenetic states during development
  • is involved in the repair of G:T and G:U mismatches caused by hydrolytic deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine, respectively
  • TDG regulates TGFB1-dependent promoter demethylation and expression of the CDKN2B tumor suppressor gene
  • essential multifunctional enzyme involved in DNA base excision repair, DNA demethylation and transcription regulation (pMID: 23952905)
  • enzyme that initiates the repair of G/T and G/U mismatches, has been lately found crucial in embryonic development to maintain epigenetic stability and facilitate the active DNA demethylation
  • plays critical roles in DNA base excision repair and DNA demethylation
  • when TDG concentrations approach those of histones, TDG acts as a competitive inhibitor of EP300 histone acetylation
  • is a base excision repair (BER) enzyme, which is implicated in correction of deamination-induced DNA mismatches, the DNA demethylation process and regulation of gene expression
  • presence of BER-dependent and BER-independent functions of TDG, which are involved in regulation of cellular DNA damage responses and gene expression patterns
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, repair, base excision repair
    a component
    small molecule
  • interacting functionally with XPC in G/T mismatch repair
  • interacting with HUS1
  • associates with members of the TP53 tumor suppressor family and directly modulates their activity
  • TDG-NCOA3 interaction is important for broad range activation of steroid hormone nuclear receptors, and may also contribute significantly to further understanding of TDG-related nuclear receptor regulation
  • role of TDG in mammalian 5-methylcytosine demethylation
  • SIRT1 enhances TDG glycosylase activity and deacetylates acetylated TDG
  • TDG, as a new coactivator, promotes CTNNB1/TCFs transactivation and functionally cooperates with CREBBP in canonical WNT signaling
  • HRAS downregulated thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), a DNA demethylation enzyme, by inhibiting the interaction of transcription activator ING4 with TDG promoter
  • NEIL1 and NEIL2 DNA glycosylases coordinate abasic-site processing during TET-TDG DNA demethylation, and NEIL1 and NEIL2 cooperate with TDG during base excision
  • cell & other
    corresponding disease(s)
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
  • embryonic lethality in Tdg (-/-) embryos is due, in part, to the reduction of noradrenaline levels