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FLASH GENE
Symbol SYTL4 contributors: mct - updated : 14-02-2014
HGNC name synaptotagmin-like 4
HGNC id 15588
Location Xq22.1      Physical location : 99.929.490 - 99.987.135
Synonym name
  • granuphilin a
  • exophilin-2
  • Synonym symbol(s) DKFZp451P0116, SLP4, FLJ40960
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 57.65 kb     19 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor
    text structure
  • promoter is a target of SREBF1, a transcription factor that controls fatty acid synthesis, and MAFA, a beta cell differentiation factor
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    LOC392507 X similar to HSPC129 protein LOC158656 Xq22.1 similar to 40S ribosomal protein SA (P40) (34/67 kDa laminin receptor) (Colon carcinoma laminin-binding protein) (NEM/1CHD4) (Multidrug resistance-associated protein MGr1-Ag) PCDH19 Xq13.3 protocadherin 19 TNMD Xq21.33-q23 protocadherin 19 TM4SF6 Xq22 transmembrane 4 superfamily member 6 SRPUL Xq21.33-q23 sushi-repeat protein SYTL4 Xq21.33 synaptotagmin-like 4 (granuphilin-a) LOC392508 X similar to Double-strand-break repair protein rad21 homolog (hHR21) (Nuclear matrix protein 1) (NXP-1) (SCC1 homolog) CSTF2 Xq22.2-q22.3 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa NOX1 Xq22 NADPH oxidase 1 LOC389877 X similar to Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (Helix-destabilizing protein) (Single-strand binding protein) (hnRNP core protein A1) (HDP-1) (Topoisomerase-inhibitor suppressed) LOC347424 Xq22.1 similar to TGF beta-inducible nuclear protein 1 (Hairy cell leukemia protein 1) (HUSSY-29) LOC286453 Xq22.1 similar to dJ341D10.1 (novel protein) LOC392509 X similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp761H079 isoform 1 FLJ12687 Xq22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ12687 FLJ14084 Xq22.1 hypothetical protein FLJ14084 FSHPRH1 Xq22 FSH primary response (LRPR1 homolog, rat) 1 LOC392510 X similar to 14-3-3 protein tau (14-3-3 protein theta) DRP2 Xq22 dystrophin related protein 2 TAF7L Xq22.1 TAF7-like RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 50kDa TIMM8A Xq22.1 translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog A (yeast) BTK Xq22.1-q22.2 Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase RPL36A Xq26.3-q27.3 ribosomal protein L36a GLA Xq22.11 galactosidase, alpha HNRPH2 Xq21.3-q22 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H2 (H') LOC389878 X LOC389878 MGC40053 Xq22.1 hypothetical protein MGC40053 LOC158948 Xq22.1 protein kinase C, iota pseudogene ALEX1 Xq21.33-q22.2 protein kinase C, iota pseudogene FLJ20811 Xq21.33-q22.3 hypothetical protein FLJ20811 ALEX3 Xq21.33-q22.2 ALEX3 protein ALEX2 Xq21.33-q22.2 ALEX2 protein GKP6 Xq22-q23 glycerol kinase pseudogene 6 NXF5 Xq22 nuclear RNA export factor 5 KIAA1789 Xq21 KIAA1789 protein
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    19 - 3936 - 671 - 1999 10497219
    17 - 3767 - 671 - 1999 10497219
    18 - 3888 - 671 - 1999 10497219
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    blood / hematopoieticspleen   highly
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Endocrineadrenal gland     Homo sapiens
     neuroendocrinepituitary    Homo sapiens
    Nervousbrain     Homo sapiens
    Reproductivemale systemprostate  moderately
    Urinarykidney   moderately
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid    
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticplatelet Homo sapiens
    Endocrineislet cell (alpha,beta...) Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period neonatal
    Text umbilical cord
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • N terminal Slp homology domain
  • made of two conserved region SHD/SH2 linked together
  • two protein KC conserved region to (CALCB) C2 at the C terminus
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Sytl4
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • synaptotagmin C2 domain containing protein family
  • Rab27a effector family proteins
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transport
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,vesicle
    text
  • synaptic vesicles
  • endogenous platelet SYTL4 and RAB8A colocalized in the center of activated platelets, where granule secretion takes place
  • basic FUNCTION
  • regulated exocytosis in endocrine tissues
  • modulates amylase release from parotid acinar cells through interaction with syntaxin-2/3 on the apical plasma membrane
  • control potentially insulin secretion through interaction with STX1A and/or STXBP2
  • crucial component of the docking machinery of insulin-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane
  • STXBP1 and SYTL4 collaborate in the docking of insulin granules to the plasma membrane in an initial fusion-incompetent state, with STXBP1 subsequently playing a positive role in a later stage of insulin granule exocytosis
  • SYTL4 and RAB8A enhance dense granule release and the SYTL4 effect is dependent on RAB8A binding
  • SYTL4 and SYTL1 differentially regulate the exocytosis of either stably or minimally docked granules, respectively
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS cellular trafficking transport
    text vesicular transport
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
  • activation of the SREBF1/SYTL4 pathway is a potential mechanism for impaired insulin secretion in diabetes, contributing to beta cell lipotoxicity
  • a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding RAB27A/B (GTP bound form)
  • SYTL4 and EXPH5 are RAB27A and RAB27B effectors
  • binds to syntaxin-2 and syntaxin-3 as well as STX1A, and likely mediates granule docking through interactions with those multiple syntaxins on the plasma membrane
  • SYTL4 and RAB8A are expressed and interact in human platelets, and might be involved in dense granule release
  • RAB27A-SYTL4 complex on WPB (Weibel-Palade body) promotes exocytosis through an interaction with STXBP1, thereby controlling the release of vaso-active substances in the vasculature
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS