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FLASH GENE
Symbol SYT4 contributors: shn/npt/pgu - updated : 25-09-2009
HGNC name synaptotagmin IV
HGNC id 11512
Location 18q12.3      Physical location : 40.847.858 - 40.857.615
Synonym name synaptotagmin-4
Synonym symbol(s) KIAA1342, HsT1192, SytIV
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 9.49 kb     4 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Map cen - D18S1123 - D18S65 - SYT4 - D18S872 - D18S972 - tel
Physical map
NPM1P1 18q12.3 nucleophosmin 1 (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin) pseudogene 1 PIK3C3 18q12.3 phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 LOC284260 18q12.3 hypothetical gene supported by BC011527; BC021928; BC011527; BC021928 RIT2 18q12.3 Ras-like without CAAX 2 SYT4 18q12.3 synaptotagmin IV LOC342732 18q21.1 similar to cytokeratin 8 LOC388475 18 LOC388475 SETBP1 18q21.1 SET binding protein 1 SLC14A2 18q12.1-q21.1 solute carrier family 14 (urea transporter), member 2 SLC14A1 18q12 solute carrier family 14 (urea transporter), member 1 (Kidd blood group) LOC284266 KIAA1632 18q21.1 KIAA1632 protein PSTPIP2 18q12 proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 2 ATP5A1 18q12-q21 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit, isoform 1, cardiac muscle LOC115106 MGC12909 18q21.1 hypothetical protein MGC12909 FLJ34218 18q21.1 hypothetical protein FLJ34218 FLJ32670 18q21.1 hypothetical protein FLJ32670 SIAT8E 18q12.3-q21.1 sialyltransferase 8E (alpha-2, 8-polysialyltransferase)
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
4 - 3837 - 425 Present uniformly throughout the brain at low levels. Cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and whole pituitary. Resides on dense-core vesicles and microvesicles in peptidergic nerve terminals of the posterior pituitary 2009 19136969
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervousbrainlimbic systemhippocampus highly
 braindiencephalonhypothalamus highly
 braindiencephalonamygdala highly
 brainbasal nucleicaudate nucleus highly
 brainbasal nucleicorpus callosum lowly
 brainmidbrainsubstantia nigra moderately
 braindiencephalonthalamusnucleihighly
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • an intravesicular N terminal domain
  • a single transmembrane (TM) region
  • two protein kinase C-homologous repeats (Ca2+ binding domains C2)
  • a conserved WHXL motif in the C terminus
  • mono polymer homomer , heteromer , complex
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to Syt4, Mus musculus
    ortholog to Syt4, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to SYT4, Pan troglodytes
    ortholog to syt4, danio rerio
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • synaptotagmin (Syt) family
  • CATEGORY structural protein , transport
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic,vesicle
    basic FUNCTION
  • Ca2+ sensor in the process of vesicular trafficking and exocytosis
  • overexpression of synaptotagmin-4 shortened the time from fusion pore opening to dilation
  • promote transmitter release independently of Ca(2+) binding in the C(2)A domain
  • Syt IV-mediated gliotransmission contributes to hippocampal-based memory
  • serves as a postsynaptic Ca2+ sensor to release retrograde signals and induces presynaptic release and synapse-specific growth
  • an important regulator of release from nerve terminals
  • can either enhance or inhibit Ca2+ - triggered exocytosis, depending on the amount of Ca2+ entry
  • negatively regulates OXT exocytosis, and dietary obesity is associated with increased vesicle binding of synaptotagmin-4 and thus enhanced negative regulation of OXT release
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell communication
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS nervous system , exocytosis transport
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
  • Ca2+
  • inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4)
  • protein
  • Synaptotagmin 1 (SIT1)
  • clathrin-adaptor protein AP-2 (AP2M1)
  • neurexins
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • homozygous syt4-null mutant mice had impaired motor coordinatio, ncontextual fear conditioning imperment, a learning task sensitive to hippocampal and amygdala lesions and also displayed impaired social transmission of food preference