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FLASH GENE
Symbol STARD4 contributors: mct - updated : 28-05-2014
HGNC name StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 4
HGNC id 18058
Location 5q22.1      Physical location : 110.834.021 - 110.848.157
Synonym name
  • START domain containing 4, sterol regulated
  • START domain-containing protein 4
  • DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 14.14 kb     6 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    6 - 2264 23.5 205 - 2006 16579971
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver   highly Homo sapiensAdult
    Nervousbrain    
    Respiratorylung    
    Urinarykidney   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestivehepatocyte Homo sapiensAdult
    Lymphoid/Immunemacrophage Homo sapiensAdult
    Skin/Tegumentkeratinocyte Homo sapiensAdult
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a STAR-related lipid transfer, a single START domain reported to act as a general cholesterol transporter in cells , with a conserved &
  • 8764;210 AA sequence that folds into an alpha/beta helix-grip structure forming a hydrophobic pocket for ligand binding
  • STARD4, STARD5 and STARD6 have a similar lipid binding pocket specific for sterols (cholesterol in particular), but differing regulation and localization
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to Drosophilia Cg13645
    ortholog to murine Stard 4
    intraspecies homolog to STARD5
    homolog to STARD6
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • StarD4 subfamily of steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START) domain
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transport carrier
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    text
  • STARD4 and cytosolic MLYCD act similarly by increasing the rate of transfer of sterol to the endocytic recycling compartment and to the ER
  • in macrophages, STARD4 protein appeared localized to the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the intracellular metabolism of cholesterol and other sterols
  • involved in the intracellular shuttling of sterols or other lipids
  • plays an important role as a directional cholesterol transporter in the maintenance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis
  • STARD4 role can largely be compensated for by other intracellular cholesterol transporters
  • cytosolic cholesterol-sensing protein STARD4 modulates both keratinocyte cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation status, increasing the efficiency of cholesterol trafficking within the cell, and amplifying and 'fine-tuning' cellular responses to this sterol
  • highly regulated, non-vesicular, directional, intracellular transporter of cholesterol which plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis
  • increase intracellular cholesteryl ester formation and is controlled at the transcriptional level by sterol levels in cells
  • cholesterol transport mediated by STARD4 is an important component of the cholesterol homeostasis regulatory machinery
  • playing likely a previously unappreciated role in cholesterol homeostasis
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS cellular trafficking transport
    text
  • lipid transport
  • cholesterol homeostasis
  • PATHWAY
    metabolism lipid/lipoprotein
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
    cell & other
  • cholesterol
  • REGULATION
    induced by cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor
    Other induction of STARD4 by ER stress was limited to the early phase
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS