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Symbol SP4 contributors: mct - updated : 08-04-2011
HGNC name Sp4 transcription factor
HGNC id 11209
Location 7p15.3      Physical location : 21.467.688 - 21.554.149
Synonym symbol(s) SPR-1, HF1B, MGC130008, MGC130009
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 86.47 kb     6 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Physical map
PON1 7q21.3 paraoxonase 1 SP8 7p21.2 Sp8 transcription factor PON3 7q21.3 paraoxonase 3 LOC392640 7 similar to ribosomal protein L23 PON2 7q21.3 paraoxonase 2 LOC392003 7 similar to eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1; CTCL tumor antigen; translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1-like 14; prostate tumor-inducing protein 1; EF1a-like protein; glucocorticoid receptor AF-1 specific elongati ASB4 7q21-q22 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 4 WNT16 7q31 wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 16 FAM3C 7q22.1-q31.1 family with sequence similarity 3, member C ABCB5 7p14 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 5 PDK4 7q21.3 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 4 LOC392749 7 LOC392749 LOC392978 7 similar to Cytochrome c, somatic LOC392979 7 similar to ribosomal protein L18; 60S ribosomal protein L18 SP8 7p21.2 Sp8 transcription factor LOC222901 7p15.3 similar to ribosomal protein L23 LOC392871 7 similar to argininosuccinate synthetase DNCI1 7q21.3 dynein, cytoplasmic, intermediate polypeptide 1 SP4 7p15.2-p14 Sp4 transcription factor PTPRZ1 7q31.3 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1 DNAH11 7p15 dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 SLC25A13 7q21.3 solute carrier family 25, member 13 (citrin) LOC340274 7p15.3 similar to argininosuccinate synthetase AASS 7q31.3 aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthase RNU1P8 7p15.3 RNA, U1 small nuclear pseudogene 8 SP4 7p15.2-p14 Sp4 transcription factor LOC392980 7 similar to ribosomal protein L31 RAM2 7p15.3 transcription factor RAM2 DNAH11 7p15 dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 LOC392779 7 similar to zinc finger protein 312; forebrain embryonic zinc finger CADPS2 7q31.1 Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 GFR 7p21.3 Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 SHFM1 RAM2 7p15.3 transcription factor RAM2 LOC392750 7 similar to Homeobox protein DLX-6 LOC392641 7 LOC392641 RNF133 7q31.33 ring finger protein 133 RNF148 7q31.33 ring finger protein 148 DLX5 7q21.3 distal-less homeo box 5 GFR 7p21.3 distal-less homeo box 5 STEAP 7q21 six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate ACN9 7q22.1 ACN9 homolog (S. cerevisiae) LOC392957 7 similar to Rpl7a protein TAS2R16 7q31.1-q31.3 taste receptor, type 2, member 16 LOC389470 7 LOC389470 IL6 7p21 interleukin 6 (interferon, beta 2) SLC13A1 7q31-q32 solute carrier family 13 (sodium/sulfate symporters), member 1 LOC256227 7p15.3 similar to Six transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate LOC285938 7p15.3 similar to ribosomal protein S26 TOMM7 7p15.3 translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 7 homolog (yeast)
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
6 - 5811 - 784 - 2000 10814800
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Hearing/Equilibriumearinnercochlea highly
Nervousbrain     Homo sapiens
 brainlimbic systemhippocampus highly Homo sapiens
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervouscentral    Homo sapiens
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
Visualcone photoreceptor
Visualrod photoreceptor
cell lineage
cell lines
Text expressed restrictively in the developing nervous system
  • long serine/threonine and glutamine rich region (transactivation domain) at the N terminus
  • a buttonhead (BTD) box CXCPXC, just N-terminal to the zinc fingers
  • a DNA binding domain with three zinc fingers of the Cys2/His2 type near the C terminus
  • SP1 C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family
  • CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    text expressed in various neurons of all retinal layers
    basic FUNCTION
  • transcriptional activator playing an essential role for hippocampal integrity
  • controlling with CRX the photoreceptor-specific gene transcription
  • controls dendritic patterning during cerebellar development by limiting branch formation and promoting activity-dependent pruning
  • recognizes GC-rich sequences readily identified in the ‘CpG islands’ around the promoters of a variety of genes
  • may be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of GRIN1 expression, such as Y-box proteins which function as both DNA- and RNA-binding proteins
  • regulates dendritic patterning during cerebellar granule neuron development by limiting branching and promoting activity-dependent pruning
  • during cerebellar granule neuron development, SP4-dependent repression of NTF3 is required to limit dendritic branching and thereby promote acquisition of the mature dendritic pattern
  • SP4 molecular pathway could play an important role for a range of psychiatric and neurological diseases (Alzheimer disease) characterized by abnormal NMDA neurotransmission
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription
    a component
    DNA binding to GT box
    small molecule
  • functional synergy of SP1, SP3, SP4 with the photoreceptor-enriched CRX transcriptional regulator on the rod opsin promoter but not the beta-PDE promoter, although SP4-mediated activation was the most significant
  • co-localizes or overlaps with multiple retina-restricted and -enriched genes, its putative targets
  • bound to the NTF3 promoter, supporting a direct role for SP4 as a repressor of NTF3 expression
  • cell & other
  • activating both the rod opsin and beta-PDE promoters
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional   deletion    
    sporadically in schizophrenia patients
    constitutional     --low  
    dramatically decreased the expression of NMDAR1, markedly reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal CA1 and impaired the formation of spatial memory
    Susceptibility to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders
    Variant & Polymorphism other
  • polymorphisms are associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders
  • Candidate gene
    Therapy target
  • hypomorphic Sp4 mice display hippocampal vacuolization and concomitant deficits in memory and sensorimotor gating
  • Sp4 hypomorphic mouse represent a novel hypoglutamatergic model for psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia